- 1 CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2019 Outside Delhi
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2019 Outside Delhi
Time allowed : Three hours
Maximum marks: 70
- The query paper accommodates 26 questions.
- All questions are obligatory.
- Question no. 1 to 11 carry 1 mark every. Solutions to those questions ought to be in approximately 10-20 words every.
- Questions no. 12 to 19 carry 3 marks every. Answers to those questions ought to be in approximately 30-50 phrases every.
- Questions no. 20 to 26 carry 5 marks every. Answers to those questions ought to be in roughly 75-100 phrases every.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2019 Outside Delhi Set-I
PART – A
“John Marshall’s stint as Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India marked a major change in Indian Archaeology.” Clarify the assertion. Reply:
John Marshall, the Director Basic of the Archaeological Survey of India, from 1902 – 1928 has marked a serious change in Indian Arphaeology as he was the primary skilled archaeologist to work in India, and introduced his experience of working in Greece and Crete to the sector. He was very a lot taken with spectacular finds and equally keen to look for patterns of everyday life. He even announced in 1924 the discovery of a new civilization within the Indus Valley, to the world.
State the position played by ladies in agrarian society during 16th and 17th centuries. Reply:
Ladies worked with men shoulder to shoulder within the fields. Men tilled and ploughed, while ladies sowed, weeded, threshed and winnowed the harvest. Artisanal duties comparable to spinning yarn, shifting and kneading clay for pottery, and embroidery have been among the many many points of production dependent on feminine labour.
Why did Jaipal Singh plead for the safety of tribes within the Constituent Meeting ? Clarify any two reasons. OR
Clarify the ideals expressed in ‘Objectives Resolution’ launched by Jawaharlal Nehru.
Jaipal Singh plead for the protection of tribes within the Constitutional Meeting as a result of:
(i) Tribes had been dispossessed of the land that they had settled, deprived of their forests and pastures, and forced to maneuver seeking new houses.
(ii) Perceiving them as primitive and backward, the rest of society had spurned them.
Via these factors Jaipal Singh needed the society to mix with the tribes and was not asking for separate electorates, however he felt that reservation of seats in the legislature was essential to allow tribals to symbolize themselves.
On 13th December 1946, Jawaharlal Nehru launched the ‘Objectives Resolution’ in the Constituent Assembly. It proclaimed India to be an ‘Independent Sovereign Republic’, and guaranteed its citizens justice, equality and freedom, and guaranteed that satisfactory safeguards shall be offered for minorities, backward and tribal areas, and Depressed and Different Backward Courses.
PART – B
“The most unique feature of the Harappan civilization was the development of domestic architecture.” Substantiate the assertion. Answer:
The Decrease City at Mohenjondaro offers examples of residential buildings. Many have been centred on a courtyard, with rooms on all sides. The courtyard was in all probability the centre for activities similar to cooking and weaving, notably throughout scorching and dry weather. There were no windows within the walls along the ground degree. In addition to, the primary entrance did not give a direct view of the interior or the courtyard. Every house had its own rest room paved with bricks, with drains related via the wall to the road drains. Some houses still have stays of staircases to succeed in a second storey or the roof. Many houses had wells, typically in a room that could possibly be reached from the surface and maybe used by passers-by.
Look at any two evidences found by the archaeologist B.B. Lai after excavation at a village named Hastinapur in Meerut, Uttar Pradesh. [2 × 2 = 4]Reply:
In 1951-52, the archaeologist B.B. Lai excavated at a village named Hastinapura in Meerut (Uttar Pradesh). Whereas the similarity in names could possibly be coincidental, the situation of the websites within the Higher Ganga Doab, the place the Kuru kingdom was located, suggests that it might have been the capital of the Kurus. Lai discovered proof of 5 occupational ranges, of which the second and third are of curiosity to us.
Lal famous concerning the houses in the second part that inside the limited space excavated, no definite plans of homes have been obtained, however walls of mud and mud-bricks have been duly encountered. The discovery of mud-plaster with outstanding reed-marks advised that a few of the homes had reed partitions plastered over the mud. For the third part, Lai noted that houses of this period have been constructed of mud-bricks as well as burnt bricks. Soaked jars and brick drains have been used for draining out refuse water, whereas terracotta ring-wells might have been used each as wells and drainage pits.
Describe the primary teachings of Baba Guru Nanak. Answer:
Educating of Baba Gurtu Nanak :
Baba Guru Nanak firmly repudiated the exterior practices of the religions he noticed round him. He rejected sacrifices, ritual tub, image worship, austerities and the scriptures of each Hindu and Muslims. He organise his followers into a group. He arrange guidelines for congregational worship (sangat)’ involving collective recitation. For Baba Nanak, the absolute or Rab had no gender type. He proposed a easy method to hook up with the Divine by remembering and repeating the Divine’s Identify via hymns referred to as shabad.
Analyse the rituals associated with Mahanavami Dibba at the Royal Centre in Vijayanagara. OR
Analyse the primary features of Amara-Nayaka System which was launched in Vijanayagara Empire.
Rituals associated with the construction in all probability coincided with Mahanavami of the ten-day Hindu pageant in the course of the autumn season. The Vijayanagara kings displayed their status, energy and suzerainty on this occasion. The ceremonies carried out on the event included picture worship, worship of the state horse, and the sacrifice of buffaloes and other animals.
Dances, wrestling matches, and processions of caparisoned horses, elephants and chariots and soldiers, in addition to ritual shows earlier than the king and his visitors by the chief nayakas and subordinate kings marked the occasion. These ceremonies have been imbued with deep symbolic meanings. On the last day of the pageant the king inspected his military and the armies of the nayakas in a grand ceremony in an open area. On this event the kings accepted wealthy presents from the nayakas.
The Amara-Nayaka System was a serious political innovation of the Vijayanagara Empire. It’s possible that many features of this technique have been derived from the Iqta system of the Delhi Sultanate. The Amara-Nayakas have been army commanders who got territories to control by the Raya.
They collected taxes and other dues from peasants, craftspersons and traders in the area. They retained part of the income for personal use and for maintaining a stipulated contingent of horses and elephants. These contingents offered the Vijayanagara kings with an effective preventing pressure with which they introduced all the southern peninsula underneath their control. A few of the income was also used for the upkeep of temples and irrigation works. They despatched tribute to the king annually and personally appeared in the royal courtroom with presents to precise their loyalty.
Why was the Colonial Authorities eager on carrying out regular surveys and mapping numerous elements of the country ? Explain. OR
Why did Taluqdars and Sepoys of Awadh be a part of )the Revolt of 1857 ? Explain.
Colonial rule was based mostly on the manufacturing of monumental amounts of knowledge. The British stored detailed data of their buying and selling actions with a purpose to regulate their business affairs. To keep monitor of life in the rising cities, they carried out common surveys, gathered statistical knowledge, and revealed numerous official stories. From the early years, the colonial authorities was keen on mapping.
Good maps have been vital to know the landscape and know the topography. This data would permit higher management over the region. When cities began to grow, maps have been ready not solely to plan the development of these towns but in addition to develop commerce and consolidate power. The town maps give info relating to the situation of hills, rivers and vegetation, all necessary for planning buildings for defence purposes. Additionally they show the situation of the ghats, density and high quality of homes and alignment of roads, used to gauge business prospects and plan strategies of taxation.
The annexation by the British not solely displaced the Nawab but in addition dispossessed the taluqdars of Awadh. The countryside of Awadh was dotted with the estates and forts of taluqdars who for many generations had controlled land and power within the countryside. Earlier than the approaching of the British, taluqdars maintained armed retainers, constructed forts, and enjoyed a degree of autonomy, so long as they accepted the suzerainty of the Nawab and paid the revenue of their taluq. A few of the greater taluqdars had as many as 12,000 foot-soldiers and even the smaller ones had about 200. The British have been unwilling to tolerate the facility of the taluqdars.
Immediately after the annexation, the taluqdars have been disarmed and their forts have been destroyed.
The sepoys had complained for many years over low ranges of pay and the problem of getting a depart. In the 1840s, when the sepoys who had a pleasant relationships with the British officers then started to vary. The officers developed a sense of superiority and began treating the sepoys as their racial inferiors, driving roughshod over their sensibilities. Abuse and physical violence turned widespread and thus the space between sepoys and officers grew. Trust was changed by suspicion. The episode of the greased cartridges was a basic example of this.
“The India in which Gandhiji came back to in 1915 was rather different than the one he had left in 1893.” Substantiate the statement. Reply:
In January 1915, Gandhiji returned to his homeland after 20 years of residence abroad. Those years have been spent for probably the most piart in South Africa, where he went as a lawyer, and in time turned a pacesetter of the Indian group in that territory. The India that Mahatma Gandhi got here back to in 1915 was moderately totally different from the one which he had left in 1893. Though nonetheless a colony of the British, it was much more lively in a political sense. The Indian Nationwide Congress then had branches in most main cities and towns.
By means of the Swadeshi movement of 1905-07, it had broadened its attraction among the many middle courses. That motion had thrown up some towering leaders — Bal Gangadhar Tilak of Maharashtra, Bipin Chandra Pal of Bengal, and Lala Rajpat Rai of Punjab. The trio was well-known as Lai, Bal and Pal. Where these leaders advocated militant opposition to colonial rule, there was a gaggle of ‘Moderates’ who most popular a more gradual and persuasive strategy. Among these moderates was Gandhiji’s acknowledged political mentor, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, in addition to Mohammad Ali Jinnah, who like Gandhiji, was a lawyer of the Gujarati extraction educated in London.
PART – C
“Buddhism grew rapidly both during the lifetime of the Buddha and after his death.” Justify the assertion with appropriate arguments. OR
“Among the best preserved monuments of the 600 BCE to 600 CE is the Stupa at Sanchi.” Justify the statement with appropriate arguments in the context of its sculptural features and conservation coverage taken up within the nineteenth century.
Gautam Buddha founded Buddhism in the 6th century BCE. The faith turned fashionable in the course of the lifetime of Buddha and proceed to spread beyond India after his dying. The rationale for the popularity and propagation of Buddhism was its message and its simplicity.
Individuals did not discover its teachings difficult to understand. Native language was utilized by the Sangh to spread it. The truth is, Gautam Buddha used to speak in the Prakrit language somewhat than in Sanskrit. Buddha was towards any rituals so he did away with them. Individuals discovered it straightforward to comply with this philosophy. Asoka and afterward different kings accepted Buddhism as their faith, because it was a strong creed at the moment.
Buddha did not consider in caste system and treated everybody equally which meant the individuals of the decrease caste have been joyful. Buddhism hooked up significance to conduct and values somewhat than claims of superiority based mostly on delivery. They emphasised on ‘meta’ (fellow felling) and ‘karuna’ (compassion) ‘ especially for those who were youger and weaker than oneself. These ideas drew men and women to the fold of Buddhism. A body of followers of Buddha was founded in an organization known as ‘Sangha.’ Followers came from many social groups which included kings, wealthy men gahapatis and humbler people.
The teachings of Buddha have been written in Tripitakas, or the Three Baskets. Buddhist Sangha was quick to unfold the message of Buddha to totally different elements of India and abroad. Buddhism was opposed to customs and rituals as was accomplished in Brahmanism.
Stupas have been sacred places the place the relics of the Buddha corresponding to his bodily remains or objects used by him have been buried.
In line with a Buddhist text generally known as the Ashokavadana. Ashoka distributed parts of the Buddha’s relics to each essential city and ordered the construction of stupas over them. By the second century BCE quite a lot of Stupas, like Sanchi and others had been built.
Art historians have rigorously studied the sculpture at Sanchi and identified it as a scene from the Vessantara Jataka.
The empty seat was meant to indicate the meditation of the Buddha, and the stupa was meant to symbolize the Mahaparinirbana. Another regularly used image was the wheel. This stood for the primary sermon of the Buddha, delivered at Sarnath. The tree symbolises an event within the lifetime of the Buddha. In response to well-liked belief, Shalabhanjika was a lady whose touch induced timber to flower and bear fruit. It is possible that this was considered an auspicious symbol and built-in into the decoration of the stupa. Animals have been after used as symbols of human attributes. Elephants (signify power and knowledge), horses, monkeys and battle scenes are also, engraved at the stupa.
While some historians determine the determine as Maya, the mother of the Buddha, others determine her with a
common goddess, Gajalakshmi—actually, the goddess of excellent fortune—who’s associated with elephants. Serpent discovered on a number of pillars appears to be derived
from different widespread traditions.
Conservation coverage taken up in the nineteenth century:
The rulers of Bhopal in the 19th century, Shahjehan Begum and her successor Sultan Jehan Begum, offered money for the preservation of the ancient website. John Marshall devoted his necessary volumes on Sanchi to Sultan Jehan. She funded the museum and publication of the volumes on Sanchi written by John Marshall.
French sought ruler Shahjehan Begum’s permission to take away the japanese gateway of Sanchi Stupa but both French and the English have been glad with rigorously prepared plaster forged copies and the unique remained at the website.
Describe Bernier’s description of land possession in India and in addition describe its influence on Western theorists from 18th century onwards. [OR]Describe the experiences of Al-Biruni in the Indian Subcontinent.
Based on Bernier, there was no personal property during Mughal India. He was a agency believer within the virtues of personal property, and saw crown possession of land as being harmful for each the state and its individuals. He thought that in the Mughal Empire, the emperor owned all of the land and distributed it among his nobles, and that this had disastrous consequences for the financial system and society. Owing to crown possession the land holders could not cross the property to their youngsters. They have been averse to long run funding within the sustenance and enlargement of manufacturing. This had led to uniform ruination of agriculture.
Bernier’s descriptions influenced Western theorists from the 18th century onwards. The French philosopher Montesquieu, as an example, used this account to develop the thought of oriental despotism, in line with which rulers in Asia (the Orient or the East) loved absolute authority over their topics, who have been stored in circumstances of subjugation and poverty, arguing that each one land belonged to the king and that non-public property was non-existent.
In accordance with the above view, everyone, except the emperor and his nobles, barely managed to outlive. This idea was further developed as the concept of Asiatic Mode of Production by Karl Marx within the 19 century. He argued that in India and other Asian nations before colonialism surplus was appropriated by the state. As within the case of the question of landownership, Bernier was drawing an oversimplified picture. There have been all types of cities : manufacturing cities, buying and selling towns, port cities, sacred centres, pilgrimage towns, and so forth.
Al-Biruni spent years in the company of Brahmana clergymen and scholars, learning Sanskrit, and learning spiritual and philosophical texts. While his itinerary shouldn’t be clear, it’s doubtless that he travelled extensively in Punjab and elements of Northern India.
He also mentioned several ‘barriers’ that he felt obstructed understanding. The first amongst these was language, Sanskrit was totally different from Arabic and Persia. Ideas and ideas could not be translated from one language into another.
The second barrier he recognized was the difference in spiritual beliefs and practices. The self-absorption and consequent insularity of the native inhabitants in line with him, constituted the third barrier.
He tried to elucidate the caste system by on the lookout for parallels in other societies for instance in Historic Persia. He attempted to recommend that social divisions weren’t unique to India. He noted that in historic Persia four social classes have been acknowledged. He remarked that every little thing which falls into a state a impurity strives and succeeds in regaining unique situation of purity. The solar cleanses the air, and the salt within the sea prevents the water from turning into polluted. Al-Biruni’s description of the caste-system was deeply affect by the Brahamanical viewpoint, which in real life was not fairly as inflexible. He wrote concerning the system of Varna.
Based on him there have been 4 castes. The very best caste was Bahamanas who in line with the books of Hindus have been created from the top of Brahma and the Brahman is the one another identify for the pressure referred to as nature. The subsequent caste was Kshatriyas who have been created from the shoulders and arms of Brahma. The third caste was Vaishya, who have been created from the thigh of Brahma. The fourth caste was Shudra, have been created from the ft of Brahma.
Explain the events that led to the communal politics and Partition of India. OR
Clarify the strengths and limitations of oral testimonies within the understanding of Partition of India.
The differences between the communal political events have been creating a divide that afterward turned troublesome to bridge. Not solely this, the British authorities began enjoying one get together towards the opposite to weaken the nationwide motion and delay their keep in India.
(i) Right from the beginning, the British adopted the policy of divide and rule. Before the coming of the British, the Hindus and the Muslims lived fortunately in India. There was unity, mutual cooperation and brotherhood amongst them.
(ii) To weaken the National Motion, the federal government actively inspired the Muslim League to comply with their communal demands. The truth is, they received some Muslim leaders to type the League in 1905, after the Partition of Bengal. Additionally the League’s proposal for a coalition government within the united provinces was rejected by the Congress after the provincial election of 1937.
(iii) The position of the political leaders was also answerable for the partition of India. Outstanding amongst them was Jinnah, who lead the Muslim League and passed the Lahore Decision Remanding a measure of autonomy for the Muslim majority areas that gave delivery to a new nation referred to as Pakistan.
(iv) In the course of the 1920s and early 1930s rigidity grew around quite a lot of issues. Muslims have been angered by ‘music-before-mosque’, by the cow safety motion formation of the Hindu Mahasabha in 1915 and by the efforts of the Arya Samaj to convey again to the Hindu fold (shuddhi) those that had lately converted to Islam.
(v) Hindus have been angered by the speedy unfold of tabfigh (propaganda) and tanzim (organisation) after 1923.
(vi) Submit Conflict Developments : During 1945 the British agreed to create a completely Indian Central Government Council apart from the Viceroy and the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, as a preliminary step in the direction of full independence. Discussions concerning the transfer of energy broke down as a result of Jinnah’s unrelenting demand that the League had an absolute right to choose all the Muslim members of the Government Council and that there must be a sort of communal veto in the Council.
(vii) Failure of the Cabinet : Mission (March 1946) was brief lived as the Muslim League needed the grouping to be obligatory, with sections B and C creating into robust entities with the appropriate to secede from the Union in the future.
(viii) Direct Motion Day : After withdrawing its help to the Cabinet Mission plan, the Muslim League selected ‘Direct Action’ for profitable its demand for Pakistan. It announced on 16 August 1946 as Direct Action Day. On this present day, riots broke out in Calcutta, lasting a number of days and leaving several thousand individuals lifeless. By March 1947 violence spread to many elements of Northern India.
(ix) Withdrawal of regulation and order from 1946 to 1947: There was an entire breakdown of authority within the metropolis of Amritsar. British officers didn’t know tips on how to deal with this example : they have been unwilling to take selections, and hesitant to intervene. When panic-stricken individuals appealed for help, British Officials requested them to contact Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabh Bhai Patel or M. A. Jinnah. No one knew who might train authority and energy. The top management of the Indian events, barring Mahatma Gandhi, have been concerned in negotiations relating to independence whereas many Indian civil servants within the affected provinces feared for the personal lives and property. The British have been busy getting ready to give up India.
(x) Compounded Issues : Issues compounded as a result of Indian soldiers and policemen came to act as Hindus, Muslims or Sihks. As communal rigidity mounted, the skilled commitment of these in uniform could not be relied upon. In many places not solely did policemen assist their co-religionists however additionally they attacked members of other communities.
The strengths of oral testimonies in the understanding of Partition of India :
- Oral history helps us grasp experiences and reminiscences intimately.
- It allows historians to write down richly textured, vivid accounts of what occurred to individuals during events similar to Partition which might be inconceivable to extract this type of info from authorities documents.
- It additionally allows historians to broaden the boundaries of their discipline concerning the lived experiences of the poor and the powerless. For instance, about Latif’s father, the women of Thoa Khala.
- Shifting beyond the actions of the well-off and the well-known, the oral history of Partition has succeeded in exploring the experiences of those women and men that have been ignored, taken as a right, or mentioned solely in passing in mainstream historical past.
- Oral narratives memoirs, diaries, family histories first hand written accounts assist to know the trials and tribulation of strange individuals through the paritition of the nation. Reminiscences and experiences form the truth of an occasion.
Oral testimonies inform us concerning the each day experiences of those affected by the federal government determination to divide the country.
The restrictions of oral testimonies is the understanding of Partition of India :
- Many historians believed that oral knowledge appear to lack concreteness and the chronology they yield might have be imprecise. Historians argue that the individuality of private experience makes generalisation troublesome: a big image can’t be constructed from such micro-evidence, and one witness is not any witness.
- Additionally they assume that oral accounts are involved with tangential issues, and that the small particular person experiences which stay in reminiscence are irrelevant to the unfolding of bigger processes of history.
- If history has to accord presence to the peculiar and powerless, then the oral history of Partition shouldn’t be concerned with tangential issues.
- The experiences it relates are central to the story, a lot in order that oral sources ought to be used to examine different sources and vice versa.
PART – D
Read the following extract rigorously and answer the questions that comply with :
Prabhavati Gupta and the village of Danguna
That is what Prabhavati Gupta states in her inscription:
Prabhavati Gupta …. instructions the gramakutumbinas (homeowners/peasants dwelling within the village),
Brahmanas and others dwelling within the village of Danguna…
“Be it known to you that on the twelfth (lunar day) of the bright (fortnight) of Karttika, we have, in y order to increase our religious merit donated this village with the pouring out of water, to the Acharya
[ (teacher) Chanalasvamin…. You should obey all (his) commands ….
We confer on (him) the following exemptions typical r of an agrahara…. (this village is) not to be entered
by soldiers and policeman; (it is) exempt from (the obligation to provide) grass, (animal) hides as seats, and charcoal (to touring royal officers); exempt from (the royal prerogative of) purchasing fermenting liquor and digging (salt); exempt from (the right to) mines and khadira trees; exempt from (the obligation to supply) flowers and milk; (it is donated) together with (the right to) hidden treasures and deposits (and) together with major and minor taxes ”
This charger has been written in the thirteenth (regnal) yr. (It has been) engraved by Chakradasa.
(13.1) How did Prabhavati Gupta show her authority via the inscription ? (13.2) How did the inscription give us an concept concerning the rural inhabitants ? (13.Three) Look at the significance of the constitution issued by Prabhavati Gupta. Answer:
(13.1) Her authority is reflected in the language used within the inscription.
(13.2) The inscription provides us information about the rural.inhabitants because the inscription addresses the ‘householders/peasants living in the village, the Brahmanas and others living in the village of Danguna.’
(13.Three) Charter was a command or order for all dwelling in village they usually needed to obey the instructions. It supplies perception into the relationship between cultivators and the state. It additionally provides an concept about rural population who have been anticipated to offer a variety of produce to the king and his representatives.
Learn the next extract rigorously and reply the questions that comply with:
Nobles at Courtroom
The Jesuit Priest Father Antonio Monserrate, resident on the courtroom of Akbar, observed :
In an effort to forestall the good nobles turning into insolent via the unchallenged enjoyment of energy, the King summons them to courtroom and provides them imperious commands, as though they have been his slaves. The obedience to those instructions ailing suits their exalted rank and dignity.
(14.1) Look at the connection between Akbar and his nobles. (14.2) How do you assume that the nobility was an necessary pillar of the Mughal State ? (14.3) Clarify the statement of the Jesuit Priest Father Antonio Monserrate relating to this relationship. Answer:
(14.1) The king would summon the nobles to the courtroom and give them imperial commands as though they have been his slaves. This was to stop the good nobles from turning into insolent by way of unchallenged enjoyment of power. The king granted titles to men of benefit; awards have been additionally given.
(14.2) The nobility was an necessary pillar of the Mughal state as they have been recruited from numerous ethnic and non secular groups to assist in efficient administration. The nobles participated in army campaigns with their armies and in addition served as officers of the empire within the provinces.
(14.Three) The Jesuit Priest Father Antonio Monserrate observe that the members of the Jesuit mission interpreted the emperor’s open interest within the doctrines of Christianity as a sign of his acceptance of their religion. This could possibly be understood in relation to the intolerant spiritual environment that existed in Europe on the time. High respect shown by Akbar in the direction of the members of the Jesuit mission impresed them deeply.
Read the following extract rigorously and reply the questions that comply with :
Buchanan on the Santhals
Buchanan wrote :
They are very intelligent in clearing new lands, but stay meanly. Their huts haven’t any fence, and the walls are product of small sticks placed upright, shut together and plastered inside with clay. They are small and slovenly, and too flat-roofed, with very little arch.
(15.1) Look at the position of Buchanan as an agent of the East India Company ? (15.2) Analyse the financial actions of Santhals. (15.3) How did Buchanan describe the dwelling circumstances of Santhals ? OR
Learn the following extract rigorously and reply the questions that comply with :
How money owed mounted
In a petition to the Deccan Riots Commission a ryot explained how the system of loans labored :
A sowkar lends his debtor ₹ 100 on bond at ₹ 3-2 annas per cent per mensem. The latter agrees to pay the quantity inside eight days from the passing of the bond. Three years after the stipulated time for repaying the quantity, the sowkar takes from his debtor one other bond for the principal and curiosity collectively at the similar fee of interest, and allows him 125 days’ time to liquidate the debt. After the lapse of 3 years and 15 days a 3rd bond is passed by the debtor …. (this course of is repeated) at finish of 12 years …. his curiosity on ₹ 1,000 quantities to ₹ 2,028-10 annas-3 paise.
(15.1) For what objective did ryots get loans from cash lenders ? (15.2) How did the ryot explain the system of loans ? (15.3) How do you assume that the best way of borrowing money by the ryots brought misery to them ? Reply:
Buchanan on that Santhals :
(15.1) Buchanan was employed by the East India Firm. He marched in all places with a large army of individuals—draughtsmen, surveyors, palanquin bearers, coolies, and so on. As an agent of the East India
Company, Buchanan had to report on the exercise of the Santhals.
(15.2) (i) The Santhals cultivated a variety of economic crops for the market.
(ii) The dealt with merchants and moneylenders as nicely.
(15.3) In accordance with Buchanan, the Santhals had very little wants. They lived in simple huts made-up of small sticks and plastered with mud. The design of the huts was easy with flat roofs and no arches. The huts have been constructed small and saggy. That they had no fence.
How debts mounted
(15.1) They needed loans even to buy their everyday wants and meet their manufacturing expenditure. Cultivators required loans for extending their common, shifting into new areas, and reworking pasture land into cultivated fields. But to broaden cultivation peasants needed more ploughts and cattle. They needed money to buy seeds and land. For this they had to turn to the moneylenders for loans.
(15.2) The sowkar (sahukar) lends his debtor Rs. 100 on bond at Rs. Three-2 annas per cent per mensem. The latter agrees to pay the quantity within eight days from the passing of the bond. Three years after the stipulated time for repaying the amount, the sowkar takes from his debtor one other bond for the principal and curiosity collectively on the similar price of curiosity, and permits him a period of 125 days to liquidate the debt. After the lapse of three years and 15 days, a 3rd bond is passed by the debtor. This course of is repeated at the end of 12 years and his curiosity on Rs. 1000 amounts to Rs. 2028—10 annas-Three paise.
(15.3) Over time, the ryots and peasants came to associate the misery of their lives with the new regime of bonds and deeds. They have been made to signal and put thumb impressions on documents, however they did not know what they have been truly signing. That they had no concept of the clauses that moneylenders inserted in the bonds. They feared the written word. But that they had no selection because to survive they needed loans, and moneylenders have been unwilling to provide loans with out legal bonds.
PART – E
(16.1) On the given political outline map of India, find and label the next appropriately : [1 × 2 = 2](a) Dandi—a centre of nationwide movement.
Masulipatnam-a metropolis underneath British management in 1857.
(b) Panipat-a territory beneath Mughals.
(16.2) On the identical political define map of India, three locations have been marked as A, B and C which are related to matured Harappan. [1 × 3 = 3]
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2019 Outside Delhi Set-II
Word : Apart from the next questions, all the remaining questions have been requested in earlier set.
PART – A
“Over the decades, new issues have assumed importance in the archaeology of Harappa.” Give two evidences to justify the assertion. Reply:
Over the many years, new points haye assumed importance within the archaeology of Hajrappa. The place some archaeologists are often,eager to obtain a cultural sequence, others attempt to understand the logic underlying the situation of specific sites. Additionally they grapple with the wealth of artefacts, making an attempt to determine the features these might have served. Specialists are utilizing trendy scientific methods together with floor exploration to recuperate traces of the civilization as nicely to minutely analyse each scrap of obtainable proof.
State any two options of Akbar Nama. Answer:
(i) The writer of Akbar Nama(the chronicle of a King), Abu’l Fazl who was a courtroom historian within the reign of Akbar. The Mughal chronicle is predicated on a variety of sources including precise data of occasions, official documents and oral testimonies of knowledgeable individual.
(ii) The Akbar Nama is divided into three books of which the first two are chronicles and the third guide is the Ain-i-Akbari. The Akbar Nama offers an in depth description of Akbar’s reign in the conventional diachronic sense of recording politically vital events as well as synchronic picture of all points of Akbar’s empire-geographic social administrative and cultural irrespective of chronology.
PART – B
“Many reconstructions of Harappan religion are made on assumptions and archaeological interpretation.” Substantiate the statement. Reply:
(i) Early archaeologists thought that sure objects which appeared uncommon or unfamiliar might have had a spiritual significance. These included terracotta figurines of girls, closely jewelled some with elaborate head-dresses, considered mom goddesses.
(ii) Uncommon stone statutory of males in an virtually standardised posture, seated with one hand on the knee akin to ‘priest king’ was additionally equally categorized.
(iii) Similar buildings have been assigned of formality significance which embrace great tub and hearth altars discovered at Kalibangan and Lothal.
(iv) Makes an attempt have additionally been made to reconstruct spiritual beliefs and practices by analyzing seals, a few of which appear to depict ritual scenes. Others, with plant motifs, are thought to indicate nature worship. Some animals — such because the one-horned animal, typically referred to as the ‘unicorn — depicted on seals seem to be mythical, composite creatures. In some seals, a figure shown seated cross-legged in a yogic posture, sometimes surrounded by animals, has been regarded as a depiction of ‘proto-Shiva’, that is, an early type of one of the major deities of HinduisnvBesides, conical stone objects have been ‘ categorized as lingas.
Describe the beliefs of Virashaiva tradition in Karnataka. Answer:
The Virashaivas or Lingayats worship Shiva in his manifestation as a linga, and males often put on a small linga in a silver case on a loop strung over the left shoulder. Those that are revered embrace the jangama or wandering monks. Lingayats consider that on demise the devotee might be united with Shiva and will not return to this world.
Subsequently, they don’t practise funerary rites similar to cremation, prescribed in the Dharamashastras. As an alternative, they ceremonially bury their lifeless. They challenged the thought of caste and the “pollution” attributed to sure groups by the Brahamanas. They questioned the idea of rebirth. These gained them followers amongst those who have been marginalised by the Brahamanical social order. The Lingayats also inspired sure practices that have been disapproved in the Dharmshastras, resembling post-puberty marriage and the remarriage of widows. The understanding of Virashaiva custom is derived from Vachanas (oral sayings) composed in Kannada by men and women who joined the movement.
“The initiatives in Champaran, Ahmedabad and Kheda marked Gandhiji out as a nationalist with a deep sympathy for the poor.” Substantiate the assertion. Answer:
Gandhiji within the last month of the yr 1916 was introduced with a chance to place his precepts into apply. On the annual Congress held in Lucknow, Gandhiji was approached by a peasant from Champaran in Bhar, who informed concerning the harsh remedy by the British indigo planters.
After this info, Mahatma Gandhi had to spend a lot of 1917 in Champatan, in search of to obtain freedom for the peasants, safety of tenure in addition to the liberty to domesticate the crops of their selection. The next yr, 1918, Gandhiji was involved in two campaigns in his residence state of Gujarat. First, he intervened higher working circumstances for the textile mill staff in Ahmedabad. Then he joined the peasants in Kheda, in asking the state for the remission of taxes following the failure of their harvest. These initiatives in Champarari, Ahmedbad and Kheda marked Gandhiji out as a nationalist with a deep sympathy for the poor.
PART – C
Describe the attitude of Ibn Battuta and Francois Bernier on the condition of girls in the Indian subcontinent. OR
Describe Bernier’s views on the land-ownership of Mughals.
Ibn Battuta’s account, Rihla, states that female slaves have been in the service of the Sultan who have been specialists in music and dance.
Ibn Battuta himself loved their performances on the wedding ceremony of the Sultan’s sister. Feminine slaves have been also employed by the Sultan to maintain a watch on his nobles.
They entered the house unannounced. They convey all the knowledge to the Sultan. They have been captured in raids and expedition. They have been brazenly bought in markets, like some other commodity and have been additionally given as presents.
Beriner highlighted the ailing remedy of girls in India.
He described the apply of Sati. He selected his follow as an important marker of difference between Western and Japanese societies.
Bernier’s description of land ownership of Mughals:
- Berniers stated that there was no personal property during Mughal India.
- He believed in virtues of private property.
- He saw crown ownership as harmful for each state and the individuals.
- He thought Mughal emperors owned the whole land.
- This “had disastrous consequences for the state, and society.
- Owing to crown ownership the land holders could not pass the property to their children.
- They were averse to long term investment in the sustenance and expansion of production.
- This had led to uniform ruination of agriculture.
- The French philosopher Montesquieu used this account to develop the idea of oriental despotism according to which rulers in Asia (the Orient or the East) enjoyed absolute authority over their subjects who were kept in conditions of subjugation and poverty arguing that all land belonged to the king and the private property was nonexistent.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2019 Outside Delhi Set-III
Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set
PART – A
State the role of Jati Panchayats in the Mughal agrarian society. Answer:
Panchayats had a very important role [ during the Mughal agrarian society. In addition to the village panchayat, each caste or jati in the village had its own Jati Panchayat. These panchayats wielded I’ considerable power in rural society. They mediated in contested claims on lands, decided whether marriages were performed according to the norms laid down by a particular caste group, determined who had rituals precedence in village functions, and so on.
The state respected the decisions of Jati Panchayats in most of the cases.
PART – B
“One of the most distinctive features of Harappan cities was the carefully planned drainage system.” Substantiate the assertion. Reply:
Some of the distinctive features of Harappan cities was the rigorously planned drainage system. On the Lower City, the roads and streets have been laid out alongside an approximate grid pattern, intersecting at right angles. Plainly streets with drains have been laid out first after which houses have been built along them. If domestic waste water needed to move into the road drains, each home wanted to have at the least one wall along the road. It is definitely probably the most full historic system as but found.
Describe the distinctive elements of Sufi-Silsila. Reply:
By the eleventh century Sufism advanced right into a well-developed motion with a physique of literature on Quranic studies and Sufi practices. Sufi Silsilas began to crystallise in several elements of the Islamic world across the twelfth century. The word silsila actually means a sequence, signifying a steady link between grasp and discipline, stretching as unbroken religious genealogy to” the Prophet Muhammad. It was necessary because it was by means of this channel that religious power and blessing have been transmitted to devotees. Particular ritual of invitation have been developed during which initiates took an oath of allegiance, wore a patched garment, and shaved their hair. Dargah (tomb-shrine) turned centre of devotion fopr shaikhs followers. Probably the most famous Sufi Silsila was “Chisti Silsila”.
“It was the Rowlatt Satyagraha that made Gandhiji a truly national leader.” Substantiate the assertion. Reply:
In 1919, Gandhiji gave a name Satyagraha towards the Rowlatt Act, passed by the British. The Act restricted the freedom of expression and strengthened police powers. It was the Rowlatt Satyagraha that made Gandhiji a true national leader. Encouraged by its success, Gandhiji referred to as for a marketing campaign of Non-Cooperation with British rule. Indians who wished colonialism to end have been requested to stop attending faculties, schools and regulation courts, and not pay taxes. In sum, they have been requested to stick to a ‘renunciation of (all) voluntary association with the (British) Government’. Gandhiji stated that if non-cooperation was effectively carried out, India would win swaraj within a yr. To additional broaden the wrestle, he had joined arms with Khilafat Motion.
PART – C
Describe Ibn Battuta’s account of Indian cities. OR
Describe the detailed observations and significant insights given in the Bernier’s “Travels in the Mughal Empire”.
As a traveller, Ibn Battuta discovered cities within the subcontinent filled with thrilling alternatives. He arrived in Delhi in the fourteenth century when it was a part of international network. They have been densely populated and prosperous, apart from the occasional disruptions brought on by wars and invasions. From Ibn Battuta’s account it appears that most cities had crowded streets and shiny and colourful markets that have been stacked with a wide variety of goods. He describes Delhi as an enormous city, with a terrific inhabitants, the most important in India. Daulatabad was equal in measurement of Delhi. The bazaars were not only locations of financial transactions, however the hub of social and cultural actions. Most bazaars had a mosque and a temple and areas have been marked for public performances by dancers, musicians and singers. He found Indian agriculture very productive due to the fertility of soil.
Bernier’s ‘The Travels in the Mughal Empire’ is marked by detailed observations, important insights and reflection.
(i) In response to Bernier, there was no personal property throughout Mughal India. He was a agency believer in the virtues of personal property, and saw crown ownership of land as being dangerous for each the state and its individuals. He thought that the emperor owned all of the land and distributed it among his nobles, and this had disastrous consequences for the financial system and society.
(ii) Owing to crown ownership of land, landholders could not move on their land to their youngsters. In order that they have been obverse to any long-term funding in the sustenance and enlargement of manufacturing. It had led to the uniform ruination of agriculture, excessive oppression of the peasantry and a steady decline in the dwelling standards of all sections of society, besides the ruling aristocracy.
(iii) Bernier’s descriptions influenced Western theorists from the eighteenth century onwards. The French philosopher Montesquieu, as an example, used this account to develop the thought of oriental despotism, based on which rulers in Asia (the Orient or the East) enjoyed absolute authority over their subjects, who have been stored in circumstances of subjugation and poverty, arguing that each one land belonged to the king and that non-public property was non-existent.
(iv) Based on this view, everyone, except the emperor and his nobles, barely managed to outlive. This idea was additional developed as the concept of the Asiatic mode of production by Karl Marx in the nineteenth century. He argued that in India (and other Asian nations), before colonialism, surplus was appropriated by the state. This led to the emergence of a society that was composed of numerous autonomous and (internally) egalitarian village communities.
(v) The imperial courtroom presided over these village communities, respecting their autonomy so long as the stream of surplus was unimpeded. This was considered a stagnant system.
(vi) Modern European travellers and writers ‘ typically highlighted the remedy of girls as an important marker of distinction between Western and Japanese societies. Not surprisingly, Bernier selected the follow of Sari for detailed description. He noted that whereas ladies seemed to embrace dying cheerfully, others have been pressured to die.