CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2013 Delhi
Time Allowed: 3 Hours
Maximum Rating: 70
- The Query Paper incorporates 26 questions.
- All questions are
- Question no. 1 to 11 carry 1 entry every. These questions must be answered in about 10 to 20 phrases.
- Query no. 12 to 19 carry 3 characters every. These questions have to be answered in about 30-50 words.
- Question no. 20 to 26 carry 5 characters each. These questions must be answered in about 75 to 100 phrases.
** This answer won’t be answered on account of a change in present curriculum.
CBSE Previous Year Query Papers Class 12 History 2013 Delhi Collection – Part I  Query 1
Who was Cunningham? Point out any account he makes use of to seek for the early settlements of the Harappa civilization.  Reply:
Alexander Cunningham, First Director-Basic of the Archaeological Analysis Middle of India (ASI), also known as the Father of Indian Archeology. He used bookmarks left by a Chinese Buddhist pilgrim who had visited the continent between the fourth and seventh centuries.
To what dynasty did Krishnadeva Raya belong? Point out any one among his enlargement and consolidation insurance policies.  Answer:
Krishnadeva Raya belonged to the Tuluva dynasty.
His major policy was to maintain the state in a state of fixed army readiness, however nonetheless flourish in circumstances of unparalleled peace and prosperity.
For instance: during his rule, land between the Tungabhadra and Krishna rivers was acquired, the rulers of Odisha subdued, and the Bijapur sultan was severely defeated, however there was peace in the empire.
Why are the objectives of Nehru's resolution thought-about a serious resolution? Justify two reasons.  Reply:
The Resolution of the Objectives was an fascinating decision as a result of:
- It outlined the defining ideals of an unbiased Indian constitution and offered the framework within which the constitutional work had to proceed.
- It declared India to be an unbiased sovereign republic, guaranteeing justice, equality and liberty to its residents and ensures for depressed courses.
Probably the most unique function of Mohenjodaro was the planned metropolis supporting the statement with examples.  Reply:
Mohenjodaro is probably the most well-known place for its city design and well-designed architecture. Probably the most hanging options of Mohenjodaro are the massive houses of the decrease town and the massive sauna.
There have been residential buildings within the lower town. The houses have been centered on the courtyard, with rooms on each side. Every house had its personal rest room, coated with bricks, and drained into the road. Many houses also had wells.
There were buildings in the fortress that have been used for particular public functions. The Citadel was a platform that was some peak above the ground. There have been warehouses product of bricks and wooden.
The massive tub was also situated in a fortress that was used for special public purposes similar to a ceremony tub, and so forth. The bathtub is surrounded by a corridor on all 4 sides, a tank within the center, stairs on each side, loos on three sides. Mortar and plaster have been used. There was also a big sewer, which tells us that the tank was cleaned once in a while. Subsequently, the deliberate urban middle is probably the most unique function of the Mohenjodaro space.
“The Mahabharata is a good source for exploring the values of ancient Kinfolk rallies. “Justify this claim with proper arguments.  Answer:
The Mahabharata is a huge epic that, in its present form, functions in over 1,000,000 verses depicting a wide variety of social classes and situations, and has been composed for over 100 years. Therefore, the Mahabharata is appropriate; the text provides information on familiarity and the values of Kinfolk's ancient times.
Kinfolks is a large network of relatives.
The kinfolks values described in the Mahabharata sections are patrilineal, rules of marriage, status of marriage. women, etc.
Patriliny means tracing from father to son, grandson and so on. We find that most of the family legacy went beyond boys. Only in rare cases do we find that it sometimes went to the brothers. Women had no requirements from household sources.
The rules of marriage were defined in connection with the exams. Getting married outside the clan and relatives was considered good. Example: All Pandavas are married from India for distant reasons.
Polygeny was a common practice, for example: Arjuna married more than one woman, but polyandryation was also practiced sometimes, less frequently, for example: Draupad had five husbands. . Property was acquired by sex, and therefore practicing a kanyadana or gifting a daughter to marriage was an important religious obligation for the father.
“The principle of greed and abandonment emphasized by Jainism has left its mark. “Support the statement with Lord Mahavira's messages.  Answer:
Ahimsa and renunciation are the basic principles that form the cornerstone of its ethics and doctrine in Jainism.
This concept of ahimsa left its mark on Indian society and many philosophies evolved from this concept. 19659003] The concept of Ahimsa in Jainism differs from non-violence in other religions. It not only seeks non-violence for other beings, but also non-violence for self-soul. According to Mahavir, our souls are trapped in this world and until we give up the world, we inflict violence on our souls.
In Jainism, renunciation does not only have to be renunciation of external matters, but renunciation to external matters. is the true definition of renunciation. According to Lord Mahavir, external renunciation does not matter if the soul is trapped within. Therefore, we must practice asceticism and repentance in order to be free from the cycle of karma.
Example: Jaina monks and nuns made five promises: refrain from killing, stealing and lying, adhering to celibacy and refraining from property. . These teachings were developed in the texts of Prakrit, Sanskrit and Tamil, thus spreading it around the world and impressing.
How do modern historians explain the development of Magadha into the most powerful Mahajanpada? Explain.  Answer:
Magadha rqost is explained by modern historians for a number of reasons:
- Magadha was an area where agriculture was particularly productive. Agriculture was very important for any empie economy.
- The Magadh region is rich in minerals, iron mines were available and provided resources for tools and weapons.
- Magadh's army was a powerful army and they had elephants. army. Elephants were found in the forests of the area.
- The Ganga and its tributaries also provided a means of cheap and convenient communication, which is very important for them to have knowledge of other kingdoms and the economy served. Changing the capital from Rajgriha to Pataliput also helped because it commands communication routes along the Ganges.
- Buddhists and Jaina writers also gave power to the policies of relentlessly ambitious kings such as Bimbisara, Ajatasatru and Mahapadmanand, etc.
- were the five major political centers of the kingdom – the capital of Pataliputra and the taxi, Ujjayaini, Tosali and Suvarnagiri. The empire ranged from the present provinces of the northwestern borders of Pakistan to Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and Uttarakhand in India, which meant the power of Magadha Janapada.
“Bernier's description of the Imperial Land – ownership influenced Western theorists such as French philosopher Montesquieu and German Karl Marx. “Justify it on appropriate grounds.
Bernier traveled extensively and reported on the social and economic life of India and his villages during the seventeenth century. . He said the land was owned by the crown and that there was no concept of private property. He said the whole land belonged to the king and the farmers were only tenants. Bernier considered India to be inferior to the West.
Bernier's descriptions influenced Western theorists since the 19th century. This story was used by the French philosopher Montesquieu to develop eastern despotism. He said that the rulers had absolute authority over their subjects, held in conditions of subjugation and poverty, because all the lands belonged to the king and there was no private property. According to him, with the exception of the emperor and his noble, everyone else could hardly survive.
Bernier's accounts also influenced Marx and gave the idea of "Asian production." He said that in India before colonialism, the state used the surplus. This led to the emergence of a society made up of many autonomous and egalitarian village communities.
He Romanized the villages of India. The Imperial Court presided over these village communities, respecting their autonomy as long as the flow of surplus was prevented. Although this was considered a stalled system.
However, there are doubts about what Rentier said, because none of Mughal's official documents, such as Akbarnama's, suggest that the state is the sole owner of the land.
Explain the features of the Islamic religion that helped spread it across the continent.  Answer:
The features of Islam that influenced its spread through the subcontinent are:
- The five "pillars" of faith were in principle accepted by the believers of Islam.
- There is only one God, Allah, and the Prophet Muhammad is His Messenger (shahada).
- They prayed five times a day (namaz / salah).
- It was believed to give alms (zakat).
- Fasting during the month of Ramzan (sawmill).
- made a pilgrimage to Mecca (haj).
- The Kings played an important role in the spread of Islam.
- The Sufi saints also played an important role.
- Arabic merchants settled in the Malabar Coast used local languages and local customs.
- The architectural features of mosques were influenced by regional (local) traditions.
- Khojahs, a branch of the Ismailis (sect of Shia), developed new ways. communication, spreading ideas about the Qur'an through indigenous literary works.  Question 10.
In what ways have the daily routines and special celebrations associated with the Mughal court conveyed the feeling of Mughal Emperor power? Explain.  Answer:
Chronicles give very precise rules defining the status of the Mughal elite. The status of the court was determined by the local proximity to the king. The place given to the Greenman by the Ruler was a sign of his importance to the Emperor. When the emperor sat on the throne, no one was allowed to move or leave his position without permission. Social control in the judicial society was exercised by carefully and in detail defining the forms of address, courtesy and speech acceptable to the court. The smallest violation of the eliquette was discovered and punished on the spot.
The greetings to the ruler indicated the position of individuals in the hierarchy: deeper fatigue meant higher position. The highest form of submission was or total exhaustion. During Shah Jahan, these rituals were replaced by Chahar Taslims and Zamindar (kissing the earth).
The protocols for Mughal Court diplomatic agents were equally clear. The ambassador introduced to the Mughal emperor was expected to provide an acceptable form of greeting – either by leaning deep or kissing the ground or following the Persian custom with his hand to his chest.
. on the anniversary of the accession to the throne, Eid, Shab-e-barat and Holi, the court was full of life. The scented candles placed on the rich holders and the palace walls decorated with colorful decorations made a huge impression on the visitors. The Mughal kings celebrate three major festivals a year on Monarch sun and moon births and Iranian New Year's Nauroz birthdays on Yellow Equinox. On his birthday, the ruler was weighed against a number of commodities, which were then distributed to charity.
Why did the Fifth Report become the basis for an intense debate in England? Explain.  Answer:
The Fifth Report becomes the basis of intense debate in England because: Many of the changes we are discussing were documented in detail in a report submitted to the British Parliament in 1813. It was the Fifth Series of Reports on East India Company Management and Operation in India often referred to as the Fifth Report, it was divided into 1002 pages, of which more than 800 pages contained appendices identifying the positions of zamindars and ryots, collector reports by various districts, statistics tables on income returns and remarks on Bengal and Madras revenue and legal administration (today Tamil Nadu) penned.
From the moment the company had established its rules in Bengal in the mid-1760s, its activities were closely followed and discussed in England. There were many groups in Britain who opposed the monopoly. That the East India company was trading with India and China. These groups wanted to withdraw the Royal Charter, which gave the company this monopoly. More and more private traders wanted a share of India's trade, and British industrial companies wanted to open the Indian market to British manufacturers. Many political groups claimed that the conquest of Bengal was only beneficial to the East India Company, but not to the whole of the British nation. Information on corporate malpractice and maladministration was hotly debated in the UK and cases of greed and corruption by corporate officials were widely reported in the press. The British Parliament passed a series of regulations in the late 19th century to regulate and monitor corporate governance in India.
How have the various available sources helped historians build the history of Gandhiji and its associated national movement? Explain.  Answer:
Creating a true image of a politician and a leader, despite the availability of materials, is extremely difficult because the bigger the leader, the more perceptions and myths about him. So historians have relied on concrete sources to reconstruct Gandhiji's political career and personality.
The most important source for the writings and speeches of Gandhiji, his time buddies and colleagues.
Example: Gandhiji started with magazines like Harija, etc. Although historians feel that public writings and speeches must be distinguished from private letters, because public writings give his ideas about society, whereas private letters describe philosophy of life, society, and inner imbroglios. Another source is Biographies because they give a picture of the past, which is often rich in human details. Example: The story of my experiments with the truth. Another important source is government records. Like these. records can be read from archives, they provide information on what the government responded to his policies and actions.
Example: Ministry of Home Affairs reports during the Dandi march reveal that the department was unwilling to accept that Gandhi's actions had caused any enthusiastic response from the masses.
Newspapers also talk about movements and present what ordinary Indians thought of him.
"colonial cities offered women new opportunities in the 19th century." statement with facts.  Answer:
Women were subjected to a lot of mistrust of their public appearance and behavior. There were some developments in the colonial cities, such as bazaars, horse cards, motors, roads, etc.
There were new transport options like horse carts, and later trams and buses meant that women could travel long distances to the city center. They were used not only by English women but also by upper-class Indian women. Although the lower-class women still did not have access to such facilities.
In new urban cities there were shopping malls, theaters, etc. While there was resistance, the educated Indian upper-class wives were used to watch (Mema at times. [19459005)] Social reformers also put pressure on women's education, and thus opened expressed themselves through magazines, books, and autobiographies.
Example: Madras Medical College in 1835 Women Christian Medical.
Although this opportunity was enjoyed by only a fraction of women, many people opposed these attempts to change traditional patriarchal standards.
Part – D
Read the value-based section below and answer the following questions: [3 + 2 = 5] Nawab Wajid Ali Shah was captured and expelled in Calcutta on the assumption that the area is unknown. " that Wajid A li Shah was an unpopular ruler. On the contrary, he was widely loved, and when he left his beloved Lucknow there were many who followed him always with Kanpur, singing songs. Many modern observers recorded widespread sadness and loss in the Nawab exile. One of them wrote, “Life had disappeared from the body, and the body of this city had been left dead. There were no streets or markets and houses that would not shout Jan-i-Alam. "In one folk song it was chosen that" a respected Englishman came and took over the country. ”,
(Angrez Bahadur ain, mulk broad linho).
(a) Why did individuals rush. and show emotional rise within the vacation spot? Clear.
(b) What human values are disclosed within the paragraph above? **
(a) Wajid Ali Shah was the beloved ruler of Awadh, however Lord Dalhausie joined Awadh
. ] an excuse for mismanagement. Wajid Ali Shah was in process in Calcutta and the courtroom was dissolved. That’s the reason the individuals of Awadh liked their exile. Individuals had seen Wajid Al as a succesful and beloved ruler, however when the British expelled him, individuals had a feeling of deception and have been subsequently empathic with Wajid Al. In the course of the Monarchs, individuals thought of a ruler as their "mai baapina" and have been loyal to the king. In order that they thought the British would have taken hold of them as a part of themselves and their bodies.
Clarify why Abdur Razzak, the Ambassador of Persia, was tremendously impressed by the Vijaynagar fortress. In the 15th century.  OR
Clarify the ways through which rural society is regulated by the panchayats and village heads of Mughal village.
Abdur Razzak, the Ambassador of Persia, visited the Vijaynagar Empire within the 16th century. He stayed in Vijaynagar for a number of years and advised about economics, elections and social life. But his account of the structure of Vijaynagar has attracted widespread attention as a result of he explains that Vijaynagar was built with a substantial amount of design and the fortress structure is the most effective example.
He revealed that the Vijaynagar Empire created cities primarily to protect towards attacks. The town itself was a fortress and as such designed in each method potential. It was constructed of large stone and partitions, and had slopes of forts and bell towers scattered throughout its size and width. City tourists, regardless of their guilds and intentions, had to move by means of a closely fortified and protected space before reaching the guts of the cities, which gave them a broad image of the facility of defending the empire.
The Vijayanagara Fortress not only surrounds the palace; however it was additionally surrounded by farm strains, river streams, forests, and so forth. This was accomplished especially to carry out the siege of the fortress by any powerful enemy. There were seven fortifications. Between the first, second and third walls are cultivated fields, gardens and homes.
Water channeled from the Tungabhadra River was used for agricultural cultivation.
The outer wall related the hills surrounding the town. The huge masonry structure was slightly tapered. No mortar or cement was utilized in any development. The stone blocks have been wedge-shaped, holding them in place, and the inside of the walls was crammed with rubble.
A second fortress line ran around the inside core of the town complicated, and a third line surrounded the royal middle, inside which each of crucial buildings was surrounded by its own excessive partitions. Gateways have been distinctive architectural features. The arches of the gateways have been sensible and showed the influence of Turkish architecture.
There were sidewalks and roads that usually circled by way of valleys, avoiding rocky terrain. A number of the main roads prolonged from the temple fairways and ended with bazaars. That's why Razzak impressed with the intelligence, sensible design and know-how used to make the fortress.
In medieval occasions, as in conventional villages, the state didn’t intrude much in village issues apart from income assortment. and village issues have been left to the village panchayat.
The Panchayat was a lineup of older, often dominant caste males. Though the village consisted of many baptisms, lower cassettes have been not often represented in the village's panchayat formation. The choices of the Panchayatas are binding on the members.
The Panchayat was led by a muqaddam or Mandal chief elected by consensus of the village elders, and zamindar needed to ratify this selection.  The chief activity of the master was to supervise the drawing up of the village accounts, and he was assisted by the patwari of the panchayat.
The Panchayat acquired its funds from payments made by individuals in the Widespread Economic Pool. The fund additionally funded the cost of group welfare activities, resembling spillage brought on by accidents reminiscent of flooding, excavation, and so on.
One of the essential duties of the panchayat was to make sure that the caste boundaries between the varied communities dwelling within the village have been maintained. For instance: In East India, all Marriages have been beneath mandate management.
Panchayats also resorted to fines and penalties, reminiscent of expulsion from the group, if any member doesn’t obey the panchayat laws. The aim of such a measure was to stop the breach of caste requirements.
In addition to the village panchayat, each village caste had its personal Jati panchayat. These panchayats stations gained considerable power in rural society. Instance: In Rajasthan Jati-panchayats, arbitration was settled in civil disputes similar to land disputes, marriage rules, cassette ritual choice, and so on.,
Explain how the constitution of India protects the rights of central government and states.
By the top of the 19th century, a number of nationalist actions had emerged in India. As colonizers, the British had followed a division policy in India. Within the census, they categorized individuals by faith and looked at them and confronted them apart.
There was additionally an ideological difference between Muslims and Hindus in India. India had robust emotions of nationalism, however by the late 19th century there were also communal conflicts and movements based mostly on spiritual identities relatively than class or regional identities. Some individuals felt that the character of Islam required a communal Muslim society.
Separate Muslim voters, created by the colonial government in 1909 and then expanded in 1919, decisively formed the character of group policy. Spiritual identities thus gained useful use in the trendy political system, and the logic of electoral politics deepened and hardened these identities.
Within the 1920s and early 1930s, rigidity grew round quite a few subjects. Muslims have been indignant with the music earlier than the mosque, the cow protection movement and Arya Samaj's efforts to return the Hindus (shuddhi) to those who had lately converted to Islam.
Hindu Revivalists also needed to vary official writing from Persian to Hindu devanagari by practically making Hindi because the Urdu's major candidate for the national language.
Hindus hated the speedy spread of tabligh information and organization after 1923. Center-class publicists and group activists
Though the Muslim Alliance and Congress joined arms in 1916, by then, group politics had taken hold.
Though the communal hole is a vital issue within the division of India, there were several different elements, particularly what occurred in the final decade before independence.
There was hope of undivided. India, however the Provisional Government shaped in 1942 on the idea of an motion plan rejected by Congress, satisfied Muslim leaders that a compromise was unimaginable and that division was the one approach ahead.
When the Indian Nationwide Congress referred to as to end Britain from India in 1943, the Muslim Alliance handed a resolution calling for the British to separate and end. Thus, Group policy, begun in 1909, paved the best way for the two nationwide theories of the Muslim League, the antagonistic pursuits of Hindus and Muslims leading to the division of India into Pakistan and India.
India is nearly a federal state. Because of this India has a federation and a united authorities. However this was mentioned at the Constitutional Conference on what ought to be the respective rights of central authorities and states.
There are two government bodies in India: the central or federal authorities and the state government. The central government works for the whole country and the state governments are liable for the states. The spheres of exercise of each governments are totally different. The Indian Constitution has shared powers between the central government and the state governments. The seventh listing of the Constitution incorporates three lists of subjects that show how power is divided between the two governing our bodies. Both governments have separate powers and obligations.
Written Structure: The Constitution of India is written. Each provision of the Structure is clearly written and mentioned in detail. Thus defining the rights of the Middle and the State.
The Constitution supplies for 3 lists of subjects: Union, State, and concurrent. The themes in the first listing have to be within the possession of the central authorities, whereas the themes in the second listing have to be given to the States, and the third in the listing and the solidarity of the States.
Article 356 empowers the Middle to take over management. authorities on the recommendation of the governor. In particular instances, resembling emergencies, the character of India's political structure becomes more coherent.
The Structure additionally supplies for a posh system of fiscal federalism. For some taxes, similar to duties and company taxes, the Middle retained all proceeds, and in different instances, akin to revenue tax and excise duties, it shared them with the States, and in different instances, similar to property taxes, it imposed them totally on the States.
In the city middle there are two houses of the dual digital camera Le. The Rajya Sabha has some authority over essential matters of the state and the central government can’t legislate particular articles besides in sure conditions without the consent of the Rajya Sabha. Subsequently, the Structure of India protects the rights of the Middle and the State.
Learn the excerpts under, answering the following questions:
The Ryotian Petition
That is an instance of a petition from the roots of Mirajgaon village, Taluka Cattle, to collector Ahmednagar. Deccan riots committee:
The Sowkars (Saharans) have begun to oppress late. Because we will't earn sufficient to cover our household bills, we’ve got to gather them to provide us money, garments and grain. that we get from them without a lot problem or without forcing us to put ourselves in troublesome circumstances. Lisäksi tarvittavia vaatteita ja viljaa ei myydä meille käteisellä; Meiltä kysytyt hinnat ovat yleensä kaksikymmentä viisi tai viisikymmentä prosenttia enemmän kuin mitä vaaditaan rahaa suorittavien valmiiden maksujen suorittajilta. Pellomme tuotetta ottavat myös sowkarsit, jotka poistavat tuotteen vakuuttavat meille, että se hyvitetään. tilillemme, mutta he eivät itse asiassa mainitse sitä tilillä. He myös kieltäytyvät lähettämästä meille mitään kuitteja heidän näin poistamistaan tuotteista.
(a) Millaisen vääryyden rypäleet kokivat?  (b) Miksi rahan myöntäjät ottivat sadon pois ja miksi sitä ei hyvitetty talonpojan tilille?  (c) Anna yksityiskohtaiset tiedot komissiosta, joka tutki asianomaisten ihmisten vetoomuksia ja valituksia. OR
Atypical life in extraordinary occasions
What happened in cities through the months of Revolt ? How did individuals reside, by way of these months of tumult ? How was normal life affected ? Reviews from totally different cities tell us concerning the breakdown in routine activities. Learn these stories from the Delhi Urdu Akhbar, 14 June, 1857 :
The same thing is true far greens and saag (spinach). Individuals have been discovered to complain that even kaddu (pumpkin) and baingan (brinjal) can’t be found within the bazars. Potatoes and arvi (yam) when obtainable are of stale and rotten variety, saved from earlier than by farsighted kunjras (vegetable growers). From the gardens inside the town some I produce does attain a number of places however the poor and the center class can only lick their lips and watch them (as they’re earmarked for the select).
….. There is something else that wants consideration which is inflicting a number of injury to the individuals which is that the water-carriers have stopped filling water. Poor Shurfas (gentility) are seen carrying water in pails on their shoulders and solely then the required household tasks similar to cooking, and so forth. can happen. The halalkhors (righteous) have turn into haramkhors (corrupt), many mohallas have not been capable of earn for several, days and if this example continues then decay, dying and illness will combine collectively to spoil the town’s air and an epidemic will spread everywhere in the metropolis and even to areas adjacent and round.
(a) Explain what happened in Delhi city through the months of the 1857 Revolt ? (b) How did individuals stay via these months of tumult ? (c) How did the routine activities disturb the individuals ? Answer:
(a) The ryots have been to bear double injustice from sahukars in addition to income collectors. Within the deccan region, the ryotwari system of income assortment was adopted wherby ryots needed to pay revenue to collectors on fastened intervals. But in instances of poor harvest the ryots could not pay revenue and even run the home maintain in order that they needed to borrow cash and type from the sahukars, who exploited them by charging high and even manipulating the accounts.
(b) In the instances of poor harvest ryots had to borrow money from the sahukars and typically purchase clothes and grains from the store. But they needed to pay a really excessive worth and even the interest rate was very high. Subsequently, Sahukars used to maintain on including cash to the borrower’s account and in the occasions of excellent harvest they took a lot of the harvest for the reimbursement.
However the sahukars used to control the accounts and they didn’t add that the grains that they had taken from the ryots as a way to maintain the ryots perpetually in debt. A lot of the occasions they didn’t give the receipts for the grains that they had taken.
(c) Revolts began erupting in deccan by the ryots towards sahukars in 1875. Fearful by the reminiscences of 1857, the Government of India arrange a fee of inquiry to research in instances of riots. The fee submitted a report in parliament in 1878.
The fee held enquiries in the districts where the riots unfold, recorded statements of ryots, sahukars and eyewitnesses, compiled statistical knowledge on revenue charges, prices and interest rates in several regions, and collated the studies sent by district collectors.
(a) Delhi was the primary middle of revolt of 1857.
Bahadur Shah Jafar was declared as emperor of India and there was loads of political motion in delhi through the revolt. Thus the routine life of individuals was disturbed throughout this warfare time.
(b) Individuals needed to face lot of difficulties during this time. A lot of the revolt was being carried out by sepoys and princely states however peasants in some places also took half within the revolt. This resulted in hue and cry for grains and greens.
The situation of poor and middle class was all of the extra worse because they might not get greens from the gardens inside the town they usually have been siphoned off by elites solely. The town was not cleaned for months and the reporter fears that there is perhaps outbreak of Mahamaari as a result of deaths, rotten vegetables and polluted air.
(c) There was a complete halt within the day by day actions of delhi individuals. The vegetables and grains which used to return from outdoors delhi and gardens’ outdoors was disrupted subsequently costs soared up and the local individuals couldn’t find the vegetables of day by day use such brinjal, sang and so forth.
Some individuals left their day by day activities corresponding to water-fillers stopped filling the water and gentility needed to do the work.
Many households didn’t get wages as a result of the economic actions have been at halt.
Learn the passage given under and answer the questions that comply with:
“Moistening the rose garden of fortune”
On this extract Abul Fazl provides a vivid account of how and from whom he collected his info : … to Abul Fazl, son of Mubarak … this chic mandate was given. “Write with the pen of sincerity the account of the fantastic occasions and of our dominion-conquering victories … Assuredly, I spent a lot labour and analysis in amassing the data and narratives of His Majesty’s actions and I was a long time interrogating the servants of the State and the previous members of the illustrious household. I examined each prudent, truth-speaking previous men and active-minded, proper actioned younger ones and lowered their statements to writing. The Royal commands have been issued to the provinces, that those who from previous service remembered, with certainty or with adminicle of doubt, the events of the previous, ought to copy out-the notes and memoranda and transit them to the courtroom.
(Then) a second command shone forth from the holy Presence-chamber-, to wit —that the materials which had been collected ought to be … recited within the royal hearing, and no matter may need to be written down afterwards, must be introduced into the noble quantity as a complement, and that such details as on account of the minuteness of the inquiries and the trivia of affairs, (which) couldn’t then be delivered to an end, ought to be inserted afterwards at my leisure. Being relieved by this royal order — the interpreter of the Divine ordinance — from the secret nervousness of my heart, I proceeded to scale back into writing the rough draughts (drafts) which have been void of the grace of association and elegance. I obtained the chronicle of occasions starting on the Nineteenth Year of the Divine Period, when the Document Office was established by the enlightened intellect of His Majesty, and from its wealthy pages, I gathered the accounts of many occasions. Nice pains too, have been taken to acquire the originals or copies of a lot of the orders which had been issued to the provinces from the Accession up to the present-day … I also took a lot hassle to incorporate most of the reviews which ministers and excessive officials had submitted, concerning the affairs of the empire and the occasions of overseas nations. And my labour-loving soul was satiated by the apparatus of inquiry and research. I additionally exerted myself energetically to collect the tough notes and memoranda of sagacious and well-informed males. By these means, I constructed a reservoir for irrigating and moistening the rose garden of fortune.
(a) Who was Abul Fazl ? (b) Enumerate the sources he used to compile his work. (c) Identify any two administrative and two literary tasks compiled by him at the order of Emperor Akbar. OR
Kings and traders
Krishnadeva Raya (ruled 1509-29), probably the most well-known ruler of Vijaynagar, composed a’work on statecraft in Telugu generally known as the AmukuwWyada. About traders he wrote
A king should enhance the harbours of his nation and so encourage its commerce that horses, elephants, valuable gems, sandalwood, pearls and other articles are freely imported … He should organize that the overseas sailors who land in his nation on account of storms, sickness and exhaustion are taken care of in an appropriate method.
Make the merchants of distant overseas nations who import elephants and good horses be hooked up to your self by offering them with every day viewers, presents and allowing respectable income. Then those articles will never go to your enemies.
(a) Who was probably the most well-known ruler of Vijaynagar and why ? (b) Mention the identify and theme of the work compiled by him. (c) Why do you assume the King was fascinated with encouraging trade ? Explain. Reply:
(a) Abul Fazl was the son of Shaikh Mubarak Nagari and was the vizier of the good Mughal Emperor Akbar.
(b) He built-in the servants of state and the previous members of the illustrious household. The Royal Commands, which have been issued to the provinces, that those that from the previous service remembered with certainty or with adminicle of doubt, the occasions of the publish, should copy out the notes and memoranda and transit them to the courtroom, originals and copies of the a lot of the orders which had been issued to the provinces from the accession upto the current day.
(c) Administrative Undertaking: Manzil-Abadi, Sipah- Abadi.
Literary Undertaking: Ain-i-Akbari, Raga’at.
(a) Krishnadeva Raya was probably the most famous ruler of Vijayanagara because there was magnificent progress and prosperity in the empire throughout his rule.
He built numerous tanks by making embankments on the river water of Tungabhadra and numerous different steams operating by way of hills.
He strengthened the fort and developed the city centers as a beautiful place for merchants.
He had a properly ready military and his idea of Amara-Nayaka helped in enlargement and consolidation of the empire.
His empire was a robust one which began to fall to enemies after his dying but there was peace during his empire. Subsequently, Krishnadeva raya was most famous and in a position ruler of Vijaynagar.
(b) His work is known as Amuktamalyada written in Telugu.
The theme is that the king should handle the relations with the traders who import the gadgets of significance similar to elephants, horses, sandalwood and so on., in such a approach the traders ought to feel hooked up and interested in the Vijaynagar and not move to other enemy empires.
(c) King was thinking about encouraging trade because Vijaynagar used to have traders coming from overseas land and promoting gadgets akin to elephants, horses and so forth., which are of important importance for army and the gadgets comparable to valuable gems and sandalwood and so on that are very important for the prosperity of the empire.
Thus, he needed to make cordial relations with the ‘ traders by giving them gifts and allowing to have a decent profit margin.
Thus, if the king is able to make such relation with the traders then they will not go to enemy kings.
Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:
Buddhism In practice
This is an excerpt from the Sum Pitaka and contains the advice given by the Buddha to a wealthy householder named Sigala:
In five ways should a master look after his servants and employees … by assigning them work according to their strength, by supplying them with food and wages, by tending them in sickness; by sharing delicacies with them and by granting leave at times … In five ways should the clansmen look after the needs of Samanas (those who have renounced the world) and Brahmanas by affection in act and speech and mind, by keeping open house to them and supplying their worldly needs. There are similar instructions to Sigala about how to behave with his parents, teacher and wife.
(a) What advice was given by Buddha to Sigala
regarding relationship between a master and his servants and employees ? (b) List the instructions given by Buddha to the clansmen for Samanas and Brahmanas. (c) According to you what suggestion Buddha
woult). have advocated regarding parents and teachers ? OR
A divine order ?
To justify their claims, Brahmans often cited a verse from a hymn in the Rigveda known as the Purusha Sukta, describing the sacrifice of Purusha, the primeval man. All the elements of the universe, including the four social categories, were supposed to have emanated from his body :
The Brahmans was his mouth, of his arms was made the Kshatriya.
His thighs became the Vaishya, of his feet the Shudra was born.
(a) How does Rigveda describe the sacrifice of Purusha ? (b) According to Rigveda how did the elements of universe and four social categories emanate ? (c) How did the Brahmanas enforce these norms ? Answer:
(a) Buddha says that the master should be affectionate towards servants and should treat them as human beings. He should take care of them in need and should not be over exploitive.
The master should assign work to servants according to their strengths in order to get maximum gain as well as maximum happiness to the servants.
The master should give food as well as wages on time and he should also share good food with them. This implies that the servants should get food worthy of human beings.
The master should grant the employees leave whenever they require.
(b) Buddha says that the clansmen should have attitude of respect and love towards samanas and Brahmanas. They should act in respectful manner and should show affection through speech.
They should also have respect and love for the samanas not only in showing bit in mind also.
Since, Brahamanas and samanas have renounced the world and they travel places to places so if they require to stay somewhere then the clansmen should readily invite them and should always have their doors open for them.
The clansmen should also donate item suchs as food, water, clothes etc which are worthy for survival.
(c) Buddha would have advocated that parents and teachers should be affectionate towards children and students. They should teach them the language and ideals of live, respect and affection for fellow beings.
They should motivate them to aspire for a life of peace rather than blind race of materialistic prosperity.
(a) According to Rigveda Purusa is a primeval giant that is sacrificed by the God and from whose bodies the world and the varnas are built. Rigveda presents the nature of Purusha or the cosmic being as both immanent in the manifested world and yet transcendent to it and that the sacrifice was imperative for creation of the world.
(b) Rigveda describes the form of his as having countless heads, eyes and legs manifested everywhere, and beyond the scope of any limited method of comprehension. He is the source of all creation. The moon takes birth from the Purusha’s thoughts and the sun from his eyes. Indra and Agni descend from his mouth and from his very important breath, air is born. In accordance with Rigveda the 4 varnas are additionally constructed from the physique elements of the Purusa. Brahmins have been created from his mouth while Kashtriyas have been created by his arms, Vaishyas from thighs and Shudras from ft.
Thus, this exhibits the hierarchy of the four strate from superiority to inferiority comparable to mouth, arms, thighs and ft.
(c) Brahmanas enforced these norms by writing down the principles in Sanskrit texts similar to Manusmriti. Additionally they appealed and taught to kings that it is Rajdharma to ensure that all varnas work in line with the prescribed occupations.
There have been punishments for many who tried to interrupt away from and defy the varna norms.
Half – E
On the given political outline map of India mark and identify the next: [5 × 1 = 5](a) Kuru
On the given political define map of India, mark and identify the next :
On the given political outline map of India five centres of the Revolt of 1857 are marked as 1,2,three,4 and 5. Determine them and write their names on the line given towards every on the map. 
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers