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Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions, Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth, and Composition

Class 12 Geography NCERT Options, Chapter 1 Inhabitants: Distribution, Density, Progress, and Composition

Class 12 Geography, Chapter 1 NCERT Textbook Points Resolved

1. Choose the right answers from the next options:

Question 1 (i)
India's population in response to the 2001 census is:
(a) 1028 million
(b) 3182 million
(c) 3287 million
(d) 20 Million
Answer:
(a) 1028 Million

Query 1 (ii)
Which of the following states has the very best inhabitants density in India?
(a) Bihar
(b) Kerala
(c) Uttar Pradesh
(d) Punjab
Answer:
(a) Bihar

Query 1 (iii)
Which of the following states has the very best urban inhabitants share in India in line with 2001 census?
(a) Tamil Nadu
(b) Maharashtra
(c) Kerala
(d) Gujarat
Answer:
(b) Maharashtra

Question 1 (iv).
Which of the next is India's largest language group?
(a) Sino – Tibetan
(b) Indo-Aryan
(c) Austric
(d) Dravidian
Reply:
(b) Indo-Aryan

2 . Answer the following questions in about 30 phrases:

Query 2. (i)
India's extraordinarily scorching and dry, extremely cold and wet regions have low population density. In this mild, clarify the significance of local weather in inhabitants distribution.
Reply:
Individuals are likely to give attention to areas with average climates, that’s, areas which are neither too scorching nor too dry and even have adequate rainfall. help life activities. Local weather areas are likely to drive individuals out of the world and make the world less engaging for human habitation. In India, West Rajasthan is among the least populated areas, characterised by high temperatures and dry circumstances. Inhabitants density is usually high in Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar and so on., as these areas have average thermal circumstances and enough rainfall which makes the world conducive to inhabitants focus.

Query 2 (ii)
Which State Does India Have A Giant Rural Population? Inform one of many causes for such a big rural inhabitants.
Reply:
Himachal Pradesh, Odisha, United States, Bihar and Sikkim have a really high proportion of the agricultural inhabitants. The rationale for the excessive rural inhabitants is that these areas have low financial, social improvement and thus low infrastructure improvement which are likely to hinder the urbanization course of. Also, resulting from sluggish progress, individuals are likely to give attention to precedence activities.

Question 2 (iii)
Why do some Indian states have greater employment rates than others?
Reply:
The participation price is the variety of individuals involved in financial exercise. Some Indian states, resembling Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh and so on., are likely to have larger participation rates. The rate of participation in work is usually larger in areas of decrease financial improvement because the number of staff required is important to carry out a livelihood or near-livelihood economic exercise until there are other alternatives.

Query 2, (iv)
The agricultural sector has the very best proportion of Indian staff. – Clarify.
Answer:
The occupational composition of the Indian population exhibits a excessive proportion of staff in the main sector compared to these within the secondary and tertiary sectors. In India, about 58.2% of the entire working inhabitants are farmers and agricultural staff, whereas solely 4.2% are employed in the cottage business and 37.6% are other staff, including non-household, trade, commerce, development and repair and other providers. India is probably the most populous agricultural nation because of limited employment opportunities in different sectors as a consequence of low infrastructure improvement. The number of staff has fallen in current many years from 66.85% in 1991 to 58% in 2001, leading to an increase in the share of the third sector.

3. Reply the next questions in about 150 words:

Query three. (i)
Talk about the regional construction of population density in India.
Answer:
India's population could be very uneven. The USA, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka and Gujarat collectively make up about 76% of the country's population. However, the population could be very small in states like Jammu and Kashmir (0.98%), Arunachai Pradesh (Zero.11%) and Uttaranchal (0.83%), although these nations have a relatively giant geographical space. India's population density (2011) is 382 individuals per sq. kilometer and is the third most densely populated nation in Asia.

Such an uneven regional population distribution in India refers to population and physical, socio-economic and historic elements. When it comes to bodily elements, it’s clear that climate, terrain and water availability largely determine the structure of the population distribution. Consequently, we discover that the population of the North Indian Plain, Delta and Coastal Plain is larger than that of the insides of southern and central India, the Himalayas, some northeastern and western states. Nevertheless, the event of irrigation (Rajasthan), access to mineral and power assets (Jharkhand) and transport (peninsular states) have led to average or excessive population concentration in areas that have been beforehand very sparsely populated.

Among the many socio-economic and historical elements of inhabitants distribution are the development of established agriculture and the development of agriculture; mannequin of human settlement; transport network improvement, industrialization and urbanization. It has been noticed that the fall areas of the Indian rivers plain and coastal areas have remained areas with a better focus of inhabitants. Though using natural assets comparable to land and water in these areas has proven signs of degradation, the concentration of the inhabitants remains high because of the early settlement of human settlements and the event of the transport network. However, the city areas of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Pune, Ahmedabad, Chennai and Jaipur have a high population concentration resulting from industrial improvement and urbanization which attracts giant numbers of rural and urban immigrants.

Query 3 (ii)
Supplies a description of the occupational structure of the Indian inhabitants.
Reply:
The Indian inhabitants is divided into three groups in line with their financial status, specifically; foremost staff, marginal staff and non-workers. It ought to be famous that in India, the share of staff (both principal and marginal) is simply 39% (2001), with the bulk being 61% non-employed. This indicates an economic state of affairs with a better proportion of the dependent inhabitants, which continues to point a excessive number of unemployed or underemployed.

The occupational composition of the Indian population (which actually means a person's dedication to agriculture, manufacturing, providers, or any sort of skilled exercise) indicates a excessive proportion of staff within the main sector compared to those in the secondary and tertiary sectors. About 58.2% of the working inhabitants are farmers and agricultural staff, while only four.2% are employed within the cottage business and 37.6% are different staff, including non-household, trade, trade, development and restore and others. providers. When it comes to the male and female inhabitants of the nation, there are extra male staff in all three sectors. The female employment fee is relatively high in primary phrases, although there has been some enchancment in female employment within the secondary and tertiary sectors in recent times.

Secondary and tertiary sector participation rates have increased. This demonstrates the shift of staff' dependence from farm to non-farm occupations, reflecting a sectoral shift within the country's financial system. There’s a very broad regional variation within the degree of labor participation in several sectors of the nation. Nations similar to Himachal Pradesh and Nagaland, for example, have a really excessive proportion of farmers. However, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh have a better share of agricultural staff. Extremely urbanized areas reminiscent of Delhi, Chandigarh and Puducherry have a very excessive proportion of staff offering other providers.

Class 12 Geography, Chapter 1 Further NCERT Questions

Class 12 Geography, Chapter 1 – Very Brief Solutions – Sort Questions

Question 1.
What are the sources of population knowledge in India? When was the first full knowledge assortment completed / carried out?
Reply:
India's most necessary source of knowledge collection is census knowledge, which is collected each 10 years. The primary full survey was carried out by census in 1881.

Query 2.
What’s the inhabitants density in India?
Answer:
In response to the 2011 census, the population density is 382 individuals / square. km.

Question 3.
What’s the most densely populated country in Asia?
Reply:
Singapore is probably the most densely populated country in Asia.

Question four.
Define: Physiological density, agricultural density, agricultural population
Answer:
Physiological density is the number of individuals per unit of arable land. The density of agriculture is the number of farmers per unit of arable land. The agricultural population consists of farmers and agricultural staff and their relations.

Query 5.
What is meant by population doubling time?
Reply:
The time of any inhabitants to double itself on the current annual price of annual progress is known as population doubling time.

Question 6.
In what decade was progress in India damaging?
Answer:
Through the many years of 1911-1921 the inhabitants progress of 1911-1921 was adverse in India. Question 7.
Categorize the inhabitants by their place of residence.
Reply:
Depending on the place of residence, the inhabitants may be categorised as rural and city.

Question 8.
What are the two elements of population progress? Reply:
Natural and induced are two elements of population progress.

Question 9.
Outline your demographic.
Reply:
It’s a separate area of research inside geography with a complete evaluation of age and gender, place of residence, ethnicity, religion, language, literacy, marital standing, occupational characteristics, and so on.
Answer:
The four principal categories are cultivators, agricultural staff, domestic staff and different staff.

Question 11.
When was the last census survey carried out? When was the final day and time of the Census Survey?
Answer:
In India, the last census survey was carried out in 2011. It was based mostly on knowledge as of midnight on February 28, 2011.

Query 12.
What’s the complete inhabitants of India in line with the newest survey? Additionally inform the rural and city inhabitants of India based mostly on this survey.
Reply:
In response to the 2011 census, the population of India is 1210193422 individuals. Rural Inhabitants – 833087662 City Population – 377105760

Question 13.
India ranks seventh on the earth when it comes to space and ranks second when it comes to population.
Answer:
2.four% of the world's land is beneath India. There are six other nations with more territory than India. Subsequently, India has the second largest population when it comes to population, behind China, with a population of 1210193422 (2011). It ranks 7th on the planet when it comes to land area.

Query 14.
Why is the typical annual population progress price in 1951 decrease than in 1941?
Reply:

  • The spread of epidemic illnesses.

Question 15.
Describe the regional variations in population progress in India.
Answer:

  • . Southern states akin to Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Puducherry 8s Goa have low progress rates that don’t exceed the lowest progress price of 9.four%.
  • Progress price in the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Punjab. In UP, Haryana, Uttaranchal, MP, Sikkim, Assam, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand, progress rates remained at a mean of 20-25%.

Question 16.
What proportion of the inhabitants lives in rural and city areas?
Reply:
In line with the 2011 Population Survey, it is as follows: [19659036] Countryside – 68.84%

  • Urban – 31.16%
  • Query 17.
    What does it mean for secondary and tertiary participation charges? rise?
    Reply:
    The secondary participation fee and the tertiary sectors have registered a rise. This demonstrates the shift of dependence of staff from farm to non-farm occupations, reflecting the sector's shift within the financial system.

    Question 18.
    Which spiritual group has a dominant place in India?
    Answer:
    Hindus are probably the most dominant in India.

    Question 19.
    Identify India's largest spoken language. Identify all four states by which they are spoken.
    Reply:
    India's largest spoken language is Hindi. It’s spoken in Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.

    Query 20.
    What are the smallest spoken languages?
    Answer:
    Kashmiri and Sanskrit languages.

    Question 21.
    Identify the states with a smaller inhabitants than their land.
    Answer:
    The nations with the lowest population density are Arunachal Pradesh (7 per square kilometer), Mizoram (52 ​​per square kilometer) and Sikkim (86 per square kilometer).

    Question 22.

    Which areas of the Union have the very best and lowest population density?
    Reply:
    Delhi has the very best inhabitants density of 11,297 individuals, while Andaman and Nicob & i’ve 46 inhabitants per sq. kilometer.

    Query 23.
    Which state and america of America have lower than 10% population progress and which one has a damaging fee of progress?
    Reply:
    In India, two states, specifically Goa and Kerala, have lower than 10 It is 8.17% in Goa and 4.68% in Kerala, 6.68% within the Union regions of Andaman and Nicobar and 6.23% in Lakshadweep. Nagaland is the one state , where a unfavorable progress fee has been observed and is -0.47%.

    Question 24.
    Which Indian states have the very best population in rural areas?
    Answer:
    In India, about 68.84% of the inhabitants lives in rural areas. 89.96% of the population of Himachal Pradesh, 88.70% of Bihar, 85.92% of Assam and 83.32% of Odisha stay in rural areas.

    Query 25.
    Which Indian state is most urbanized? Identify some other states based mostly on the very best degree of urbanization.
    Reply:
    Goa is probably the most urbanized state in India. 62.71% of Goa's population lives in urban areas. Thereafter, more than 50% of the population of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka and Punjab stay in urban areas.

    Question 26.
    How many languages ​​are scheduled within the Indian constitution?
    Reply:
    There are 22 scheduled languages ​​within the Indian Structure.

    Question 27.
    Who is the primary worker?
    Answer:
    A employee who works at the very least 183 days a yr is known as a full-time employee.

    Query 28.
    In what number of teams is the Indian population divided from an economic perspective?
    Answer:
    They’re divided into three teams:

    1. Essential worker
    2. Marginal worker [19659037] No employee

    Query 29.
    In what number of categories is the Indian working inhabitants divided?
    Reply:
    The 2001 Census has divided the Indian working inhabitants into four sections:

    • Cultivators
    • Agricultural Staff
    • Household Staff [19659037] Other Staff.

    Question 30.
    What does the World Improvement Report say concerning the current price of progress of the Indian inhabitants?
    Reply:
    In line with the World Improvement Report, India has a inhabitants of 1,350 million. by 2025.

    Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 Brief Answer Sort Questions

    Question 1.
    Briefly define the elements that affect the distribution of the inhabitants in India.
    Reply:
    Bodily, socio-economic and historic elements affect the distribution of the population in India. Local weather, terrain and water availability largely decide the structure of the population distribution. The North Indian Plain, Delta and Coastal areas have a bigger inhabitants than the insides of southern and central India, the Himalayas, some northeastern and western states. The event of established agriculture and agriculture, population habits, transport network improvement, industrialization and urbanization additionally have an impact on population distribution.

    Question 2.
    Why does the distribution of inhabitants in rural / city areas differ in India?
    Answer:
    The rural inhabitants distribution sample in India reveals that the concentration of rural inhabitants, both within and between states, is ruled by the degree of relative urbanization and the extent of rural city migration.

    The share of the urban population has accelerated as a result of improved economic improvement and improved well being and hygiene circumstances. The urban inhabitants has grown significantly in virtually all Länder and areas of the Union. Urbanization is low in remote, hilly, tribal and flood-prone areas.

    Question 3.
    What does the "sectoral labor force" of the Indian inhabitants mean?
    Reply:
    India has a excessive proportion of main sector staff compared to secondary and tertiary sector staff. But it is very important word that the share of Indian agricultural staff has declined in current many years (58.2% in 2001 and 54.6% in 2011). In consequence, participation charges in the secondary and tertiary sectors have risen. This demonstrates the shift of staff' dependence from farm to non-farm occupations, reflecting a sectoral shift in the nation's financial system. Male staff warn ladies in all areas.

    Query 4.
    Some places in India are densely populated while others are sparsely populated.
    Reply:
    Some locations in India are densely populated whereas others are sparsely populated. The next statistics clearly show:

    • Spatial variations in population density within the country initially vary from 13 individuals per square kilometer between Arunachal Pradesh and 9 340 individuals within the Delhi metropolitan area.
    • Among the northern elements of the North. The Indian states, West Bengal, Bihar and UP have excessive inhabitants densities, whereas Kerala and Tamil Nadu have larger inhabitants densities in the Indian Peninsula. States akin to Assam, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Jharkhand and Odisha have average densities.
    • The Himalayan mountain states have comparatively low densities in the region and in the states of north-east India (besides Assam).
    • The regions of the Union (except for Andaman 8s Nicobaria) have a really excessive population density.

    Query 5.
    What do you imply by inhabitants progress? Explain how it is evaluated?
    Reply:
    Population progress refers to the change in the variety of individuals dwelling in a sure area between two durations. It’s calculated as follows:

       text population growth rate =  frac  text Population in second period - population in one period  text Population in first period  times 100

    Query 6
    India is a secular country. Justify the statement with statistical information.
    Answer:
    It’s proper that India is a secular country the place individuals of different religions stay together.

    • Hindus: 70-80% range except state areas alongside the Indo-Bangladesh border, Indo-Pak border, Jammu 8s Kashmir, Northeastern hill states within the scattered areas of Deccan Plateau 8s Ganga Plateau.
    • Muslims: They are the most important spiritual minority that is concentrated in Jammu and Kashmir, West Bengal, Kerala, UP, Delhi and Lakshadweep. They make up the majority in Kashmir Valley and Lakshadweep. Christians: They are targeting the west coast of the hills of Goa, Kerala, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Chotanagpur and Manipur.
    • Sikhs: They’re concentrated in small areas. country particularly in Punjab, Haryana and Delhi.
    • Jain and Buddhist: They are the smallest spiritual groups. Other religions embrace the beliefs and beliefs of Zoroastrian tribes and other indigenous peoples. Analyze the linguistic composition of India.
      Answer:
      India is a rustic of linguistic variety. In accordance with Grierson (Indian Language Research, 1903-1928), there were 179 languages ​​and up to 544 within the country.

      • There are about 22 scheduled languages ​​and various non-scheduled languages ​​in trendy India. . Among the languages ​​designed, Hindu speakers have the very best proportion (40.42).
      • The smallest language teams are Kashmiri and Sanskrit speakers (Zero.01% each).

      Query 8.
      What are an important options of the Indian inhabitants?
      Answer:
      A number of the engaging options of the Indian population are outlined under:

      • India is the second most populous nation after China with a inhabitants of over one billion in 2001 AD
      • The typical population progress fee between 1991 and 2001 was 19, three%. City population progress has been quicker because of migration from rural areas.
      • The inhabitants is male and the sex ratio is consistently declining.
      • At present, the inhabitants of India is doubling in 36 years.
      • About 50% of the population is beneath 20 years of age. Such younger individuals have their own socio-economic and political issues.
      • A lot of the inhabitants is made up of non-workers.

      Query 9.
      Identify 4 Indian linguistic families and give four examples of each family. Ans. Indian languages ​​are grouped into 4 families as follows: Austric (Nishada): Meghalaya, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh.

    • Dravidian (Dravida): Member of Parliament, Karnataka, Kerala, Bihar): Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Meghalaya.
    • Indo-European (Aryan): Jammu & Kashmir, UP, Member of Parliament, Goa.

    Query 10.
    "The high population density is influenced by socio-economic factors." . Justify the examples.
    Answer:
    It’s proper to say that socio-economic elements contribute to the excessive population density:

    • The event of established agriculture and the development of agriculture.
    • The construction of human settlement. 19659037] Improvement of transport community.
    • Urbanization and industrialization earlier than.
    • River plains and coastal areas; city facilities / industrial areas.

    Query 11.
    Why is the number of agricultural staff reducing?
    Reply:
    The variety of agricultural staff is falling for the next reasons:

    • Availability of limited agriculture.
    • Lack of rural employment as a result of mechanization of agriculture.
    • Seasonality of employment.
    • Giant-scale urbanization and industrialization.
    • Visibility and access to larger and quarter professions.

    Question 12.
    "Low female participation rate in India" Why?
    Answer:
    The participation price of girls in India is low because of the following elements:

    • Widespread household system.
    • Low literacy in ladies.
    • Typically born youngster.
    • Higher household duty.
    • Man dominated society.

    Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 The Long Answer Sort Questions

    Question 1.
    Describe the demographic progress of India through the years.
    Reply:
    India's inhabitants progress during the last century has been brought on by annual start rates, mortality and migration, thus displaying totally different developments. 4 distinct progress phases have been recognized throughout this period:

    Part I: The interval 1901-1921 is referred to as the period of stagnant or fastened progress of the Indian population, throughout which era the growth fee was very low, even damaging, between 1911 and 1921. Each delivery charges and mortality rates have been excessive, holding progress charges low.

    Part II: The many years 1921-1951 are referred to as a interval of steady inhabitants progress. Enhancements in health and sanitation all through the country lowered mortality. On the similar time, a greater transport and communications system improved the distribution system. Uncooked start charges remained excessive this season, leading to quicker progress than within the previous interval.

    Part III: The many years 1951-1981 are known as the period of the Indian inhabitants explosion brought on by the speedy decline of the population. mortality fee, however high fertility price of the nation's population. The typical annual progress fee was 2.2 %. Elevated international migration, bringing Tibetans, Bangladeshi individuals, Nepalese and even individuals from Pakistan, contributed to the excessive progress charges. Part IV: From 1981 to the present day, the inhabitants progress fee of the country has remained excessive but has begun to say no progressively. .. The downward development in the delivery fee is taken into account to be chargeable for such population progress. This, in turn, was influenced by the rise in the common age of marriage, improved quality of life and, particularly, the schooling of girls within the country.
    Though the inhabitants progress price continues to be in India, regional disparities are giant from one area to another.

    Query 2.
    Write a word about Indian adolescence.
    Reply:.
    An essential part of India's inhabitants progress is the expansion of its adolescents. Presently, the share of adolescents, ie these in the age group of 10-19, is about 20.9% (2011), of whom men account for 52.7% and ladies for 47.3%. Nevertheless, the adolescent population is considered to be the young adolescent inhabitants with nice potential, but at the similar time they’re fairly weak until properly directed and channeled.

    Society faces many challenges for these young individuals, some of which embrace minor marriage, illiteracy – especially female illiteracy, early faculty leaving, low nutrient intake, excessive adolescence in adolescent moms, high charges of HIV / AIDS infection, physical and psychological illness, and alcoholism, juvenile delinquency and crime.

    On the idea of these, the Government of India has taken sure insurance policies to offer enough coaching for adolescents to raised channel and correctly make the most of their talents. Launched in 2003, the Indian Authorities's Nationwide Youth Coverage focuses on enhancing young individuals and adolescents in order that they will take duty for the nation's constructive improvement. It additionally aims to strengthen the qualities of patriotism and accountable citizenship.

    The last word aim of this coverage is to empower younger individuals by successfully collaborating in decision-making and taking over the duties of a succesful chief. Specific attention was paid to empowering ladies and women to bring about equality between men and ladies. In addition, intentional exploration of young individuals's well being, sports and leisure creativity and consciousness of latest improvements in science and know-how was intentional.

    Question 3.
    To which families do the main languages ​​of India belong? Give details of their sub-family and areas.
    Reply:
    The key Indian languages belong to four principal language families – Austric, Dravidian, Sino-Tibetan and Indo-European.
    part-b

    part-b
    Query four.
    What is the occupational composition of Indian’s inhabitants? Give a detailed report.
    Answer:
    The occupational composition of India’s inhabitants (which truly means engagement of a person in farming, manufacturing trade, providers or any type of professional activities) exhibits a large proportion of main sector staff in comparison with secondary and tertiary sectors. About 54.6 % of complete working inhabitants are cultivators and agricultural labourers, whereas only 3.eight% of staff are engaged in family industries and 41.6 % are other staff including non-household industries, trade, commerce, development and restore and different providers. As far as the occupation of country’s male and feminine population is worried, male staff out-number female staff in all the three sectors.
    The variety of feminine staff is relatively high in main sector, although in recent times there was some improvement in work participation of girls in secondary and tertiary sectors.

    It is very important word that the proportion of staff in agricultural sector, in India has shown a decline over the previous few many years (58.2% in 2001 to 54.6% in 2011). Consequently, the participation fee in secondary and tertiary sectors has registered a rise. This means a shift of dependence of staff from farm ‘ based mostly occupations to non-farm based mostly ones, indicating a sectoral shift within the financial system of the nation.

    The spatial variation of labor participation price in several sectors in the nation could be very broad. For example, the states like Himachal Pradesh and Nagaland have very giant shares of cultivators. Then again states like Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh have greater proportion of agricultural labourers. The extremely urbanized areas like Delhi, Chandigarh and Puducherry have a really giant proportion of staff being engaged in other providers. This means not only availability of limited farming land, but in addition giant scale urbanisation and industrialization requiring more staff in non-farm sectors.
    part-b 2

    part-b 2
    Query 5.
    What are the challenges before adolescents? What steps have been taken by authorities to overcome these challenges?
    Reply:
    The challenges earlier than adolescents are
    as follows:

    • Female illiteracy
    • Faculty dropouts
    • Low intake of vitamins.
    • Excessive charges of HIV/AIDS infections.
    • Drug abuse and alcoholism
    • Bodily and psychological disabilities.
    • Lack of job alternatives.
    • Peer strain
    • High fee of maternal mortality of adosescents moms
    • Decrease age at marriage
    • Home violence.
    • Juvenile delinquency and commitance of crimes, and so forth.

    With a view to clear up all these problems authorities has launched a National Youth Policy.
    Options of Nationwide Youth Policy:

    • It was launched in 2003. It stresses on all round improvement of youth and adolescents.
    • It allows them to shoulder duty for constructive improvement.
    • It also goals at reinforcing the qualities of patriotism and res ponsible citizenship.
    • Particular emphasis is given on empowering ladies and woman youngster to convey equality and standing.
    • It also lays stress on involvement of youth in choice making process.
    • Underneath this policy, deliberate efforts have been taken to improve health, sports, recreation, creativity, know-how and create innovations in all spheres of life.

    Question 6.
    Explain the variations within the proportion of working population in India.
    Reply:
    The variations within the proportion of working population in India are:

    • Average variation from about 25 per cent in Goa to about 53 per cent in Mizoram.
    • Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Meghalaya have larger percentages of staff. Among the many Union Territories Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu have greater participation fee as a result of these states have variations in the levels of economic improvement.
    • About 58.2 per cent of complete working population are cultivators and agricultural labourers.
    • Only four.2% of staff are engaged in family industries.
    • 37.6 % are different staff together with non-household industries, commerce, commerce development and restore and different providers as proportion of individuals in agricultural sector has proven a decline over previous couple of many years i.e., 68.5% to 58.2% consequently participation in tertiary and secondary sectors have elevated.

    Query 7.
    Differentiate between marginal worker and foremost employee.
    Reply:

    Marginal Employee Primary Worker (i) Engaged in solely economically productive work for less than 183 days in 1 yr (i) It is the one that is engaged in any economically productive work for no less than 183 days in a yr. (ii) In 2001, it is defined that the worker who had not labored for the most important a part of the reference interval. (ii) In 2001, it is defined as the employee who had labored for the main part of the reference interval. (iii) In India, 8.7% of staff are marginal staff (iii) In 2001, the share of primary staff was 30.2 % of complete population. (iv) Proportion of marginal staff reflects a much less creating financial system and poverty (iv) Contribute giant share in economically productive work in the nation

     

    Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 Map Based mostly Questions

    Query 1.
    Locate and label the next on the given political map of India with applicable symbols.
    (i) Highest density state
    (ii) Lowest density state
    Reply:
    (i) Bihar (ii) Arunachal Pradesh
    part-b 3

    part-b 3
    Query 2.
    Find and label the following on the given political map of India with applicable symbols.
    (i) State with low proportion of urban population.
    (ii) State with high proportion of city inhabitants.
    (in) State with highest urban population.
    (iv) State with highest rural inhabitants.
    (v) State having lowest rural and urban inhabitants
    Reply:
    (i) Himachal Pradesh and Bihar
    (ii) Goa
    (iii) Maharashtra
    (iv) Uttar Pradesh
    (v) Sikkim
    part-b 4part-b 4

    Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 Necessary Questions

    Very Brief Answer Sort Questions:

    Query 1.
    Identify the state of India having the very best density of population and also mention its density.
    Reply:
    Bihar, 1102 persons per sq. km.

    Query 2.
    Outline the term Constructive Progress of Inhabitants. (CBSE 2011)
    Reply:
    When the start price is greater than dying fee between two factors of time or when individuals from different nations migrate completely to a area, it is provides rise to constructive progress of population.

    Question 3.
    Point out any two causes of the destructive progress fee of population in India during 1901-1921. (CBSE 2013)
    Reply:

    • Throughout 1901-1921 both the start fee and demise fee have been high holding the speed of improve low.
    • Poor health and medical amenities.
    • Lack of primary requirements.
    • Spread of epidemic and endemics.
    • Inefficient public distribution system.

    Question 4.
    Outline the time period “population distribution. ’(CBSE 2015)
    Answer:
    The term ‘population distribution’ refers to the way people are spaced over the earth’s surface.

    Question 5.
    How is density of population of a region calculated? (A.I. 2015)
    Answer:
    Density of population is ratio between the numbers of people to the size of land. It is usually measured in persons per sq. km.

    Question 6.
    What is the main thrust of the National Youth Policy of Government of India, 2003? . (A.I. 2015)
    Answer:
    The thrust of the National Youth Policy 2003 is youth empowerment in terms of their effective participation in decision¬making and carrying the responsibility of an able leader.

    Question 7.
    Name the state of India with largest area. (CBSE 2016)
    Answer:
    Rajasthan is the largest state of India in area.

    Question 8.
    Name the union territory of India having lowest density of population as per 2011 census. (CBSE 2016)
    Answer:
    Andaman and Nicobar Union Territory has the lowest density of population as per 2011 census.

    Question 9.
    Name the state of India having the least share of population according to the Census 2011. (Delhi 2017, 2018)
    Answer:
    State having least share of population: Sikkim

    Short Answer Type Questions:

    Question 1.
    Why is the growth rate of population in phase IV, slowing down in India? Give three reasons. (Foreign 2010)
    Answer:
    The growth rate of population in Phase IV is slowing down in India because

    • Downward trend of crude birth rate.
    • Increase mean age of marriage.
    • Improved quality of life particularly female education.

    Question 2.
    “The distribution of rural population is I not uniform throughout India.” Help this assertion with three appropriate examples. (Overseas 2010)
    Reply:
    The distribution of rural population isn’t uniform throughout India as

    • Each improvement of urban areas when it comes to social-economic circumstances and a rise fee of rural-urban migration.
    • The rural-urban migration is conspicuous within the case of urban areas alongside the primary street hyperlinks and railroads within the North Indian plains and some industrial areas.
    • Agriculturally stagnant elements of the center and decrease Gangaplains, Telangana, distant hilly, and so on., the diploma of urbanization has remained low.

    Query three.
    The many years 1951-1981 are referred as the period of inhabitants explosion in India.” Explain the assertion by giving any three causes. (CBSE 2014)
    Answer:

    • This period is known as inhabitants
    • explosion as a result of
    • Speedy fall within the mortality fee resulting from centralized planning course of.
    • Fertility fee remained excessive with the results of common progress.
    • Excessive pure improve and larger progress fee

    Long Answer Sort Questions

    Query 1.
    Clarify with examples the occupational construction of India’s inhabitants. (CBSE 2011)
    Reply:

    • A lot of the India’s population is engaged in main sector relatively than secondary and tertiaiy sectors.
    • About 58.2 per cent of complete working population are cultivator and agricultural labourers; the place as solely four.2% of staff are engaged in family industries and 37.6 per cent are different staff engaged in non-household industries, commerce, commerce development and repair and different providers.
    • As the occupation of nation’s male and female population concerned, male staff out quantity feminine staff in all the three sectors.
    • The proportion of working inhabitants of states present a average variation from 25 to 53 per cent.
    • The variety of female staff is comparatively excessive in main sector.
    • The proportion of staff in agricultural sector has shown a decline over the previous few many years.

    Query 2.
    Explain with examples any 5 elements that have an effect on the population distribution in India
    Answer:
    Five elements that affect inhabitants distribution in India are:

    • Climate along with terrain and availability of water largely determines the pattern of the inhabitants distribution. Example; The North Indian Plains, deltas and Coastal Plains have larger proportion of inhabitants than the inside districts of southern and central Indian States, Himalayas, a number of the north japanese and the western states.
    • Improvement of irrigation (Rajasthan). Availability of mineral and power assets (Jharkhand).
    • Improvement of transport network (Peninsular States) have resulted in average to high concentration of population in areas which have been previously very thinly populated.
    • Evolution of settled agriculture and agricultural improvement: pattern of human settlement; improvement of transport network, industrialization and urbanization.
    • The urban areas of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Pune, Ahmedabad, Chennai and Jaipur have excessive concen¬tration of inhabitants because of industrial improvement and urbanization drawing a big numbers of rural-urban migrants.

    Query 3.
    How are bodily and economic elements answerable for uneven distribution of population in India? (Al 2011)
    Reply:
    Physical elements that decide the pattern of the population distribution:

    • Climate along with terrain and availability of water.
    • Improvement of transport network.
    • Availability of mineral and power assets.

    Financial elements that determine the pattern of the population distribution:

    • Improvement of irrigation and evolution of settled agriculture and agricultural improvement.
    • Industrialization and urbanization.
    • Pattern of human settlement.

    Question 4.
    “The decaded 1921-1951 are referred to as the period of steady growth of population whereas the decaded 1951-1981 are referred to as the period of population explosion in India.” Explain giving reasons. (CBSE 2014)
    Answer:
    Many years of 1921-51:

    • It brought down the mortality price.
    • There was plenty of invention in life-saving medicine. Therefore, enchancment in health and sanitation occurred within the nation.
    • Crude delivery price (CBR) remained high.

    Many years of 1951-81:

    • There was high fertility price of inhabitants within the country.
    • There was a lot enchancment in the dwelling circumstances of the individuals.
    • There was speedy fall in mortality fee.
    • There was big improve in population

    Query 5.
    Outline the term Progress of population. Describe the third part of progress of population in India. (CBSE 2015)
    Answer:
    Progress of population is the change in the number of individuals dwelling in a specific area between two factors of time. Its fee is expressed in proportion. It has two components-natural and induced.
    Third Part of progress of population in India:

    • The many years of 1951-1981 are the part of inhabitants explosion.
    • Brought on by a speedy fall in mortality price however a high fertility price of population in the nation.
    • The typical annual Progress price was as excessive as 2.2 per cent.
    • Developmental actions have been launched by way of a centralized planning process.
    • Increased international migration contributed to the excessive progress price.

    Question 6.
    What’s inhabitants doubling time? Clarify the characteristics of the expansion of inhabitants in India in Part I and II. (CBSE 2015)
    Reply:
    Population Doubling time is the time taken by any inhabitants to double itself at its present annual progress fee.
    Traits of the inhabitants progress in Part I:

    • This part (1901 -21) is called a period of stagnant or stationary part.
    • Progress fee was very sluggish, even recording a unfavourable progress fee during 1911-1921.
    • Each the delivery fee and dying fee have been excessive holding the speed of improve low.

    Characteristics of the population progress in Part II:

    • This part (1921-1951) is called regular inhabitants progress.
    • Improvement in health and sanitation introduced down the mortality price.
    • Crude delivery price remained high leading to greater progress price.

    Query 7.
    Locate and label the following on the given political map of India with applicable symbols.
    (i) The State having largest area.
    (ii) State having highest density of inhabitants.
    (iii) State having lowest density of population
    Reply:
    (i)Rajasthan
    (ii) Bihar
    (iii) Arunachal Pradesh
    part-b 5

    part-b 5
    Question 8.
    What is density of inhabitants? Describe the spatial variation of inhabitants density in India. (CBSE 2015)
    Reply:
    Density of population is expressed as variety of individuals per unit area. Spatial Variation of population densities in the country ranges 17 individuals per sq. km. in Arunachal Pradesh to 11297 individuals in the Nationwide Capital Territory of Delhi in accordance with Census-2011. Bihar 1102, West Bengal 1029 and Uttar Pradesh 828 have larger densities, while Kerala 1013 and Tamil Nadu 859 have greater densities among the many peninsular Indian states. Assam, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Jharkhand and Odisha have average densities. The hill states of the Himalayan area and north-eastern states have relatively low densities.

    Question 9 .
    What’s the supply of population knowledge in India? Explain the distribution of population in India. (CBSE 2015)
    Reply:
    Inhabitants knowledge are collected by way of census operation held each 10 years in our country. India has a extremely uneven pattern of population distribution. Uttar Pradesh has the very best population adopted by Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh. Then again, share of inhabitants could be very small in the state like Jammu and Kashmir, Arunachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. Such an uneven spatial distribution of population in India suggests an in depth relationship between inhabitants and physical, social, financial and historical elements. As far as the physical elements are concerned it is clear that terrain, climate and water largely determines the sample of the inhabitants distribution. North India plains, deltas and coastal plains have larger inhabitants than the interior districts of southern and central Indian states. Among the socio-economic and historical elements of distribution of population essential as soon as are evolution of settled agriculture and agricultural improvement, pattern of human settlement, improvement of transport community, industrialization and urbanization.

    Query 10.
    “An uneven distribution of population suggests a close relationship between population and physical and socio-economic factors.” Help the assertion with appropriate examples. (Delhi 2017)
    Reply:
    Population density is intently related to bodily and socio-economic factors- Dense inhabitants in UP, West Bengal, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana, Kerala is due to flat and fertile plains, beneficial local weather water availability and socio-economic elements.

    Sparse inhabitants of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, North-East States is because of hilly terrain, dense forests and harsh local weather. Rajasthan has water shortage and its scorching 8s dry climate accounts for low population density.

    Average density is seen in Odisha, Assam, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and so forth. resulting from prospects of agriculture, industrial improvement and favorable climate to some extent. Favorable elements for Transport network, industrialization, urbanization in Maharashtra, Goa, Delhi NCR and so on. account for top population density. (Examples from the world must be thought-about as nicely)

    Question 11.
    ‘The decadal and annual progress rates of inhabitants in India are each very high and steadily growing over time.” Substantiate the statement. (CBSE 2018)
    Reply:
    The decadal and annual progress fee of population in India:
    The many years between 1921 to 1951 recorded regular progress of inhabitants. General improvement in well being and sanitation minimized the mortality fee however the delivery price remained excessive.

    Within the subsequent three many years 1951-81 are referred to as the period of population explosion. It was brought on by a speedy fall in the mortality fee but start fee remained high. Common annual progress fee was very high as the dwelling circumstances of people improved resulting from developmental activities resulting in high natural improve in delivery fee and thus, progress fee remained high. Worldwide migration additionally contributed to the high progress price of inhabitants. Since 1981 till date, inhabitants progress price has been high though a downward development of crude delivery price has started.

    Class 12 Geography NCERT Options