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Important Questions for Class 12 History, Chapter 2, Kings, Farmers, and Cities (Early States and Economies)

Important Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 2 Kings, Farmers and Towns (Early States and Economies) Q 29

Important Questions for Class 12 Historical past, Chapter 2 Kings, Farmers, and Cities (Early States and Economies)

Important Questions for Class 12 Historical past, Chapter 2 – 2 Labeling Questions

Query 1.
Why Mauryanin kingdom was thought-about an essential landmark in early Indian history? (Delhi 2015)
The Mauryan Empire was thought-about an essential landmark in India's early historical past, as Chandragupta Maurya first established an incredible empire that stretched far to the northwest of Afghanistan and Baluchistan. As well as, historians consider that the messages in Asoka's writing have been very totally different from these of other trendy rulers.

Query 2.
Why is sixth century BC typically thought-about an necessary turning level in early Indian history. (Delhi 2015)
sixth Century BC Thought-about a big turning point in early Indian historical past for the next causes:

  • It is an era related to early states, cities and iron, the development of coins, and so on.
  • This the era witnessed the expansion of a various system of thought, corresponding to Buddhism and Jainism.

Question three.
Why is James Prinsep's contribution thought-about a historic improvement of Indian epigraphy? (HOTS; Delhi 2015)
James Prinsep was an officer on the East India Company Mint. He was closely involved in Indian epigraphy by concealing two manuscripts, specifically Brahmi and Kharosthi in earlier writings and coins.

Query Four.
How have been cash utilized in 1st century CE? Give two examples. (All India 2015)
Kushan's rulers issued the primary gold coins within the 1st century. For instance:

  • The widespread use of gold coins indicates that the super worth of the events was occurring.
  • Roman coin storage amenities have been found in southern India, indicating that trade was extended beyond political borders.

Query 5.
How did the rulers of Kushanah look like in a excessive position? (All India 2015)
The rulers of Kushan have been washed to undertaking the concepts of royalism in their cash and sculptures.
Colossal statues of Kushana rulers have been discovered installed in Mathura shrine close to Mathura and Afghanistan. Many Kushan rulers used the title & # 39; Devaputra & # 39; or "the Son of God".

Question 6.
How has Prashastis collected factual information about the Gupta rulers? (All India 2015)
Prashastis have been an essential source for rebuilding the history of Gupta rulers. Historians tried to get factual details about such compositions. They consisted of poets particularly for kings and patrons typically. Harissa, the courtroom poet of Samudragupta, composed Prayag Prashast (also referred to as Allahabad Column), by which he described Samudragupta as probably the most powerful king of the Gupta Empire, as powerful as God and the protector of his poor topics.

Query 7
Mention all two features of the regime of the Mauryan Empire. (Delhi 2014)
The two primary options of the regime of the Mauryan Empire have been:

  1. The Empire had five major political centers, specifically Pataliputra, Taxila, Ujjayini, Tosali and Suvamagiri. 19659006] Administrative management was strongest within the areas across the capital and provincial centers, and these centers have been rigorously selected by the kings.

Question 8.
How did Magadha grow to be the strongest Mahayapada on 6-4. A century BC? Please give two causes.
(All India 2014)
Historians defined the rationale for the emergence of Magadha as probably the most highly effective gastroenteritis in the following ways:

  • Agriculture was very productive in Magadha. 19659006] Magadha was wealthy in iron mines that offered assets for instruments and weapons. As well as, elephants have been largely discovered on this area.

Question 9.
Explain why communication on each land and river routes was crucial for the existence of an empire during Mauryan. (Department 2013)
Throughout Mauryan occasions, communication on each land and river routes was very important to the existence of the empire as a result of:

  • The Mauryan Empire was a very vast empire. Subsequently, both land and river routes have been needed for political control, army activities and the movement of individuals.
  • Communication by means of roads and waterways was important for commerce and commerce, for the change of concepts and info, and so forth.

Question 10.
Mention all two items of proof that mentioned Asoka as the preferred ruler of the sixth century BC.
(Title 2012)
Asoka was the sixth most popular ruler of the yr. within the century BC as:

  • Historians observed that the messages in Asokan's writings have been very totally different from those of most rulers, and instructed that he be stronger, extra diligent, and more humble than different rulers.
  • Asoka was making an attempt to regulate her vast empire. together by spreading Dhamma, rules that have been usually accepted by all.

Query 11.
Who interpreted the Brahmi and Kharosthi scriptures? What necessary information have been revealed via these Manuscripts?
(Title 2011)
James Prinsep interpreted the Brahmi and Kharosthi manuscripts in 1838.

Query 12.
Point out two methods during which land grant labels assist us understand rural society in historic occasions.
(All India 2008)
In historic occasions many land grants have been recorded as subscriptions. We all know these from:

  • Many land grants got to spiritual institutions or Brahmanas. In accordance with some, land grants have been made to broaden agriculture to new areas.
  • There have been regional differences in the country of the donated nation, ranging from small to giant areas of uncultivated land, and rights have been granted to the subsidiaries, the beneficiaries of the grants. .
    BChapterwise CBSE Options: HISTORY

Important Questions for Class 12 Historical past Chapter 2 – Four Marking Questions

Query 13
Critically look at the restrictions of writing certificates in understanding the political and financial history of India. . (Delhi 2015)
Writings are an necessary supply for understanding history. But there are specific limitations to writing. They have been:
1. Several hundreds of writings have been found, but not all have been decrypted or translated.

2. Often the writings have been written by kings and patrons, together with Prayaga Prashasti is composed in Sanskrit by a poet from Harinen, Samudragupta. We all know from this writing King Samudragupta, who was described as being just like totally different deities, with generosity and administrative means.

three. The context of the textual content all the time reflected the orderer's viewpoint. However what we thought-about to be politically and economically vital details at the moment had not been recorded. For instance, routine agricultural practices, the thrill and sorrows of strange individuals weren’t mentioned within the references. History isn’t just the historical past of kings, it consists of totally different social groups and even marginalized sections of our society.

Four. Because the mid-20th century, historians have grow to be extra interested within the political and financial modifications in society (eg, the ways by which totally different social groups emerged). This led to new analysis from previous sources, and in this respect the writing had its limitations in deciphering India's political and financial historical past.

Query 14.
Historians have used multiple sources to reconstruct Mauryan history. Empire. Record all 4 such sources.
(All India 2015, 2013)
Historians have used a number of sources to reconstruct the history of the Mauryan Empire. These have been:

  • Findings from archaeological excavations, particularly sculptures, are thought-about an necessary supply.
  • Modern works such because the writings of Chanakyan Megasthenes, Arthashastra, are essential sources from that period.
  • The Maurits have been also later mentioned in Buddhist, Jain, Puranic and Sanskrit literature.
  • As well as, Asoka's writings on rocks and columns are thought-about probably the most worthwhile supply. Question 15.
    The carpet is the position of coins in decryption. Kharosthi-script? (All India 2012)
    The position of coins in deciphering the Kharosth manuscript was: Analysis of Indo-Greek coins Cash of the Indo-Greek kings who dominated Northwest Africa. sub-continent c. the second century BC.

    Comparison with Greek writing Indo-Greek cash bear the names of kings written in Greek and Kharosthi. The Kharosthi script was compared to the Greek one.

    European students who might learn Greece compared it to Kharosth. There were few similarities eg the letter a was used in each scripts to put in writing names like & # 39; Apollodotus & # 39 ;. James Prinsep recognized Kharosth's language as prakrit. Subsequently, it turned potential to learn longer writings easily

    Question 16.
    Briefly explain the concepts of kingship through the Kushan and Gupta empires. (Title 2011)
    Within the 1st century BC, Kushan dominated an ideal empire that stretched from Central Asia to Northwest India. Their historical past has been reconstructed on the idea of writings and textual traditions. The ideas of the dominion they needed to undertaking are perhaps greatest reflected of their cash and sculptures. Big statues of Kushan rulers have been found in Mathura and Afghanistan.

    In accordance with some historians, this development exhibits that the Kushanas thought-about themselves to be God-like. Several Kushanan rulers assumed the title & # 39; Devaputra & # 39; or "Son of God," maybe influenced by Chinese language leaders who referred to as themselves the sons of heaven.

    Then again, the historical past of the Gupta Empire is taken from literature, cash and writings, together with Prashastis. Prashastis usually composed kings and patrons. The well-known Prayaga Prashasti, written by Harinen, the courtroom poet of Samudragupta, is a strong doc recognized to the rulers of Gupta.

    Query 17.
    Describe briefly all two methods for growing agricultural production from the sixth century BC to the sixth century. CE.
    (Delhi 2010)
    Some strategies have been adopted to increase agricultural manufacturing in the sixth century BC to the 6th century CE. These strategies have been:

    • There was a change in Aura agriculture. The iron-tipped subject distribution was used to change alluvial soils in areas with excessive rainfall.
    • Irrigation was begun by means of wells, tanks and canals to irrigate the fields to extend agricultural production.

    Question 18.
    Describe briefly the sources used to reconstruct the history of the Gupta rulers. (All India 2010, Delhi 2009)
    In the 4th century, the rulers of the Gupta established an ideal empire which was rebuilt from numerous sources. These sources are explained within the following methods:
    Writings Writings are writings engraved on arduous surfaces comparable to rocks, metals, and so forth. These usually include common praise of kings and poets particularly. For instance, the Allahabad pillar or Prayaga Prashasti is written in Sanskrit by Harina, a jurist of the Samudragupta, who praises her. Cash Cash are additionally an essential supply for reconstructing the history of Gupta rulers as a result of they include parts comparable to manuscripts. , footage, and the context through which they’re discovered. A number of the most spectacular gold cash have been issued by the Gupta rulers. These coins facilitated long-distance visitors, which was recognized for expanding commerce.

    Literary historians tried to acquire factual details about the compositions of Prashastis. Those who wrote these typically treated them as works of poetry, slightly than as true stories as such. They have been written in praise of the king and patron common. Subsequently, historians should regularly assessment the claims made within the writings to find out whether they’re true or exaggerated.

    Prashastis They play a big position in the Gupta Rulers, e.g. Prayaga Prashasti was shaped in Sanskrit for Samudragupta.

    Important Questions for Class 12 Historical past Chapter 2 – eight Entries Questions

    Question 19
    Clarify the primary features of the Mauritian administration. (All India 2017)
    Clarify all four sources for reconstructing the history of Mauryas, Look at the Mauryan regime. (Delhi 2016)
    What source has been used to rebuild the historical past of the Mauryan Empire? Clarify with applicable examples.
    (Delhi 2012)
    For sources for the reconstruction of Mauryasi history
    Historians have used numerous sources to rebuild the history of the Mauryan Empire. These have been:

    • Findings from archaeological excavations, particularly sculptures, are thought-about an essential source.
    • Modern works such as the writings of Chanakyan Megasthenes, Arthashastra, are necessary sources from that period.
    • The Maurits have been also later talked about in Buddhist, Jain, Puranic and Sanskrit literature.
    • In addition, Asoka's writings on rocks and columns are thought-about probably the most invaluable source.

    The Mauryan regime Magadha's progress culminated in the emergence of the Mauryan Empire. Chandragupta Maurya (321 BC), the founder of the empire, extended rule to the northwest of Afghanistan and Baluchistan, and his grandson Asoka, in all probability probably the most famous ruler of India in the early years, conquered Kalinga (present-day Odisha).
    The empire had five major political facilities, specifically the capital of Pataliputra and the provincial centers of Taksia, Ujjayini,
    Tosali and Suvarnagiri, all mentioned in the Asokan writings.
    Due to the size of the system of governing the empire, this empire was not unified. It is possible that administrative controls have been strongest around the capital and provincial facilities. These centers have been rigorously chosen, each Taxila and Ujjayini are situated on necessary long-distance commerce routes, while Suvarnagiri (actually the golden mountain) was probably essential in exploiting the gold mines of Karnataka.
    Communication on both land and river routes. was very important to the existence of the kingdom. It’s clear that the army was an essential technique of securing the latter.

    Megasthenes mentions a committee of six subcommittees to coordinate army motion. Considered one of them was in control of the Navy, the other was answerable for transportation and gear, the third was in command of the foot troopers, the fourth was in control of horses, the fifth was in wagons and the sixth in elephants. The work of the Second Subcommittee was fairly numerous – arranging bullock carts to transport gear and hiring servants and artisan soldiers to deal with it.
    Asoka additionally tried to keep his kingdom collectively by spreading Dhannna, whose rules have been easy. and usually applicable in follow. In response to him, this may make sure the well-being of people on this and the subsequent world. Specialists referred to as Dhamma Mahamata have been appointed to unfold the Dhamma message.

    Query 20.
    Explain the agricultural practices of farmers to increase productiveness from C 600 BC to 600 BC. (All India 2017)
    To what extent did agricultural practices change in the 6th century BC? Clarify briefly. (Delhi 2011)
    Agricultural practices changed from the 6th century BC onwards due to the tax burden imposed by the state. The kings demanded appreciable taxes from check subjects, from the sixties to the ury.
    To satisfy this increased tax need, farmers began to seek out new ways to increase crop production. These new instruments have been:
    Change in the direction of Aura Agriculture Agricultural practices changed significantly by switching to aura farming that spread in fertile alluvial river valleys such as the Ganges and Kaveri valleys.

    Within the areas of heavy rainfall, Iron-Tipped Plowshare In, using an iron jet plow made alluvial soil a really fertile soil. Use of Paddy Transplant Paddy transplantation method was used by which the seeds have been first spread, then the seedlings have been transplanted into fields with water. This guaranteed a better seedling survival fee and larger yields and dramatically elevated paddy crop manufacturing. Although this course of requires a substantial amount of craftsmanship.

    Using Irrigation to Improve Productiveness Irrigation was one other technique to extend agricultural manufacturing. Watering was completed via wells and tanks, and typically channels have been used.

    Communities and people organized the construction of irrigation works. The process of constructing the irrigation was typically recorded within the king's writings.

    Using such methods led to a rise in agricultural manufacturing, which ultimately led to growing differentiation among the individuals working in agriculture. Main landowners and village leaders emerged as powerful figures who dominated farmers or agricultural staff. So there was a serious change within the agricultural sector in the 6th century BC.

    Question 21.
    Clarify the system of land grants and trade from 600 BC to 600 BC (Delhi 2016)
    From the beginning of the early centuries, land grants have been recorded. Some writings have been recorded on copper plates. The following details are derived from the surviving data:

    • Grants have been awarded to spiritual establishments or Brahmanas. The Brahmans have been usually exempt from cost of land revenue and other royalties. The Brahmanas have been. they have been typically given the fitting to gather these
      payments from local individuals.
    • Ladies didn’t need to have unbiased access to pure assets akin to land. But aristocratic ladies, like Prabhavati Gupta, daughter of Chandragupta II, had entry to the land.
    • The individuals of all the agricultural areas had to respect the new land of the village and pay him all the taxes.
    • Some historians claim that land grants have been a sign of the erosion of political power, kings dropping control of the same. Typically kings tried to defeat the Allies by granting land grants.
    • Land grants provide some perception into the relationship between farmers and the state.
    • The buying and selling system from 600 BC to 600 BC May be explained within the following methods. :
      • Land and river routes crossed the continent and continued in several directions within the 6th century BC The ruler tried to regulate these routes by affording protection.
      • On foot, youngsters had these totally different routes throughout. However the merchants traveled with bullock carts and packing animal caravans.
      • There have been sailors. Their enterprise operations
        have been dangerous however very profitable.
      • The successful merchants, named Manattuvan in Tamil and Settisi and Prakrit in Satavahanas, have been extraordinarily wealthy.
      • All kinds of products have been transported from one place to another. These included salt, cereals, material, metallic ores and completed merchandise, stone, wooden, medicinal crops, spices and pepper, and textiles. All these have been transported across the Arabian Sea to the Mediterranean.

    Query 22.
    What do the Asokan writings tell us about Maurya? Describe the restrictions of certificates of subscription. (All India 2016)
    To what extent do epigraphists have unlimited writing certificate? Explain. Delhi 2014,2009
    Asoka was the first ruler to put in writing his message on stone surfaces, ie Natural stones and polished poles.
    The most important rock registers explain Moorish administration particularly from Asoka. Some essential writings are discussed under:

    • Asoka's identify was not mentioned in the references. As an alternative, the titles, specifically & # 39; Devanampiya & # 39; (Beloved of God) and & # 39; Piyadassi & # 39; (nice to see)
    • Asoka denounced the will for fame and honor. He emphasized Dhamma's suggestion.
    • Dhamma included respect for the elders, generosity for the Brahmanas and those that renounced worldly life, the friendly remedy of slaves and servants, and respect for religions and traditions aside from their very own.

    Limitations on Written Evidence are:

    Technical Limitations: Typically letters are very poorly engraved, so writing suspicions may be broken or lacking letters.

    Damaged or Lacking Letters: Typically necessary letters are damaged or missing from the writing. It complicates the work of epigraphists.

    Lack of readability: It isn’t all the time straightforward to make certain of the precise which means of phrases used in writing, some of which may be particular to a specific place or time. So researchers are continually discussing choices for studying articles.

    Undeleted Knowledge: Hundreds of writings have been discovered, however not all have been decoded, revealed and translated. Most of the writings have been destroyed, and what we have now at present is probably a fraction of it.

    The insignificant which means of the writings: The writings have been made in reward of the king and patrons typically. Not every part economically or politically necessary was written down within the writings, resembling routine agricultural follow, the widespread man's pleasure and sorrow were not mentioned. Subsequently, it is troublesome for epigraphists to offer an general view of society by relying solely on writing.

    Query 23.
    What do you imply by numbing math?
    How has coin analysis helped Numismatics to reconstruct potential business networks? (All India 2014, 2010)
    Numismatics is coin analysis that features visual parts reminiscent of manuscripts and pictures, metallurgical analyzes, and the contexts through which they are found.
    Coin research has helped numismatics reconstruct potential business networks in the following methods:

    Mobilizing finance to facilitate commerce: The switching was considerably facilitated by the introduction of coinage. Wide selection of goods comparable to salt, cereals, material, metallic ores and finished merchandise, stone, wood, medicinal crops and so on. Transported from place to put. These will certainly require some form of foreign money trade.
    Subsequently, they led to the event of cash in commerce cultures.

    Mining of reed-embedded coins throughout the continent: The reed-embossed coin manufactured from silver and copper (from the 16th century BC) was the earliest to be minted and used. They’ve been recovered from excavations in several areas of the continent. Numismatics have studied these and other cash to reconstruct potential business networks. Kings, Retailers, and Bankers as Issuers: Making an attempt to determine the symbols on the perennial coins for sure ruling dynasties, including the Mauritians, recommend that they have been issued. kings. It’s also possible that a few of these coins have been issued by retailers, bankers and the city population.

    Similarity of Kushana cash to Greek and Partisan coins: The primary gold cash have been launched by the Kushanas within the 1st century CE. Their weight was nearly similar to that of the troops issued by the fashionable emperors of Rome, and Iranian celebration rulers have been present in a number of places in northern India and central Asia.

    Shut connections with the Roman Empire: The widespread use of gold cash exhibits an incredible amount. the value of transactions that have taken place. In addition, layers of Roman cash have been present in archaeological websites in South India. It is clear that trading networks weren’t limited to political boundaries. South India was not a part of the Roman Empire, however dose relationships have been made by way of commerce.

    Question 24.
    How do trendy historians explain the event and progress of Magadhan's energy? Clarify briefly. (All India 2012)
    In the sixth and 4th centuries BC, Magadha (in present-day Bihar) turned probably the most powerful mahajanapada. Modern historians clarify this improvement in many ways:

    • Magadha was an area where agriculture was notably productive. As well as, iron mines (in what is now Jharkhand) have been out there and offered assets for tools and weapons. [19659006] Elephants, essential army elements, have been discovered within the forests of the world.
    • The Ganga and its tributaries additionally offered a way of low cost and convenient communication.

    The early Buddhists and Jaina writers who wrote Magadha exerted their power on the politicians of the individuals, who are probably the most ruthlessly formidable kings of whom Bimbisara, Ajatashatru and Mahapadma Nanda are greatest recognized, and their ministers who helped carry out their policies.

    Two capitals, Rajagriha (Rajgir) and Pataliputra. (Patna) Magadha had his own interests. Rajagaha was a fortified settlement situated in the midst of a hill, so it was not simply imprisoned. The bay chew was simply transported by way of the Ganges and its tributaries.

    Important Questions for Class 12 Historical past Chapter 2 Supply-Based mostly Questions

    Query 25.
    Praise for Samudragupta
    He had no antagonist on earth; he, hy, the overflow of (his) many good attributes adorned with a whole lot of excellent deeds, he wiped the celebrity of other kings on the base of his ft (he is) Purusha (the Supreme Being), the cause of good wealth and evil destruction (he’s) incomprehensible; (he is) one whose tender coronary heart can solely be captured by devotion and humility; (he has) compassion; (he is) the giver of lots of of hundreds of cows; (his) thoughts has acquired a ceremonial beginning to elevate the unhappy, the poor, the desperate, and the struggling; (he is) nice and corporeal kindness to mankind; (he’s) as great as (gods) Kubera (God of wealth), Varuna (God of ocean), Indra (God of rain) and Yama (God of dying).

    1. Who wrote Prashasti above?
      Point out the significance of Prashast?
    2. Mention all three options of the ruler described within the passage
    3. How far are these rulers' values ​​meaningful in at this time's society? Explain. (Delhi 2014)

    1. The Harjana has written in Sanskrit Prayaga Prashasti, also referred to as Allahabad Column Marking. This Prashasti stated that Samudragupta had no antagonist on earth and was adorned with a whole lot of excellent acts.

    2. The ruler features described in Otto are:

    • The ruler must be highly effective, with many good qualities.
    • He should deliver wealth.
    • The ruler should have compassion and try to increase distress. , poor, and easy.

    3. The values ​​said in the above paragraph are relevant in as we speak's society. Rulers ought to have a constructive angle in the direction of the well-being of their countrymen. He should always attempt to convey wealth and equality to all walks of life.

    Question 26.
    Sudarshana (lovely) lake in Gujarat
    Lake Sudarshana was a man-made reservoir. We know of it in Sanskrit (2nd century CE), which was constructed to report the achievements of Shrad ruler Rudradaman.
    The letter mentions that the lake, embankments and water channels, have been built by the local governor through the rule maury as. Nevertheless, a horrible storm broke the embankments and water flowed from the lake. Rudradaman, who dominated the world, claimed he would get the lake repaired together with his own assets without taxing his space.
    Toinen samaan kalliota koskeva kirjoitus (5. vuosisadalla) mainitsee kuinka yksi hallitsijoista Gupta-dynastian edustajat saivat järven jälleen korjaamaan.

    1. Kuinka saamme tietää Sudarshana-järvestä?
    2. Miksi tämä järvi vaati korjausta?
    3. Selitä miksi hallitsijat ryhtyivät kasteluun? (Kaikki Intia 2014)

    1. Opimme tuntemaan Sudarshana-järven sanskritin kielellä (2. vuosisadan CE), joka on tarkoitettu tallentamaan Shakan hallitsijan Rudradamanin saavutukset.

    2. Sudarshana-järvi vaati korjausta, koska kauhea myrsky rikkoi järven penkereitä ja järvestä valui vettä.

    3. Hallitsijat ryhtyivät järjestelyihin
    kasteluun, joka sisälsi järvien korjaamisen jne., Koska kastelu oli ratkaisevan tärkeää maatalouden ja mahdollisen elintarviketurvan edistämiselle. Kastelu hyväksyttiin lisäämään maatalouden tuotantoa järvien, kaivojen, säiliöiden ja kanavien kautta.

    Kysymys 27.
    Rajojen merkitys
    Manusmriti on yksi varhais-Intian tunnetuimmista oikeudellisista teksteistä, kirjoitettu. sanskritin kielellä ja noudatti 2. vuosisadan eaa ja 2. vuosisadan CE. Tämän tekstin neuvoa kuningasta tekemään.
    Nähdessään, että maailmassa syntyy jatkuvasti kiistoja rajojen tietämättömyydestä johtuen, hänen olisi pitänyt… piilottaa rajamerkinnät haudattuina – kivet, luut, lehmänkarvat, kalvat, tuhka, potterit. , dried cow dung, bricks, coal, pebbles and sand.
    He also needs to produce other comparable substances that might not decay within the soil buried as hidden markers at the intersection of boundaries.

    1. Why did the controversies of boundaries arise ? Explain.
    2. Recommend the ways to unravel the boundary issues.
    3. Clarify with instance any such drawback being faced by India immediately. (Delhi 2011)

    1. The ignorance of king to conceal the boundaries led to the controversies.

    2. By concealing the boundaries by markers reminiscent of stones, bones, cow’s hair, chaff, ashes, potsherds, dried cow dung, bricks, coal, pebbles and sand. These substances do not decay within the soil and will act as markers on the intersection of boundaries.

    three. India faces such issues in the villages where the land data are poorly maintained and numerous stakeholders try to claim their possession of the disputed land.

    Question 28.
    The Anguish of the King
    When the King Devanampiya Piyadassi had been ruling for eight years, the (country of the) Kalingas (present-day coastal Odisha) was conquered by him. 100 and fifty thousand men have been deported, a hundred thousand have been killed and many more died.

    After that, now that (the nation of) the Kalingas has been taken, Devanampiya (is devoted), to an intense research of Dhamma, to the love of Dhamma and to instructing (the individuals) in Dhamma. That is the repentance of Devanampiya on account of his conquest of the (nation of the) Kalingas. For this thought-about very painful and deplorable by Devanampiya that, whereas one is conquering an unconquered (nation) slaughter, demise and deportation of individuals (happen) there.

    1. Who was referred to as ‘Devanampiya Piyadassi’? Give his temporary description.
    2. Mention the significance and limitations of inscriptions.
    3. Explain the consequences of struggle of Kalinga on Asoka.
    4. Why did the king repent after the warfare of Kalinga? (All India 2011)

    1. Emperor Asoka was referred to as ‘Devanampiya Piyadassi’. Asoka was an important ruler of Mauryan dynasty. He captured Kalinga and later repented on it and established the notion of ‘Dhamma’.

    2. Importance of Inscriptions Inscriptions present invaluable information about those that commission it. They inform us about social and political circumstances of that point once they have been inscribed.
    Limitations Inscriptions are source of limited info. They don’t undertaking the opinion of widespread individuals.

    three. After the warfare of Kalinga, Asoka devoted hirnself to intense research of Dhamma and started instructing the individuals concerning the message of Dhamma.

    4. The king repented after the struggle of Kalinga because it was very painful for him because the struggle led to slaughter, dying and deportation of hundreds of people.

    Important Questions for Class 12 Historical past Chapter 2 Map Based mostly Questions

    Question 29.
    On the given outline map of India, locate and label the next. (Delhi 2013)
    1. Avanti
    2. Magadha

    Important Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 2 Kings, Farmers and Towns (Early States and Economies) Q 29

    Question 30.
    On the given political map of India, find and label the next. (All India 2012 )
    1. Topra – Pillar Inscription
    2. Girnar – Major Rock Edicts
    Important Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 2 Kings, Farmers and Towns (Early States and Economies) Q 30

    Important Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 2 Kings, Farmers and Towns (Early States and Economies) Q 30

    Query 31.
    On the same map, three places associated to Mahajanapada and cities have been marked as 1, 2 and 3. Determine them and write their names on the strains drawn near them. (Delhi 2008)
    Important Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 2 Kings, Farmers and Towns (Early States and Economies) Q 31

    Important Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 2 Kings, Farmers and Towns (Early States and Economies) Q 31
    Important Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 2 Kings, Farmers and Towns (Early States and Economies) Q 31aImportant Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 2 Kings, Farmers and Towns (Early States and Economies) Q 31a

    Query 32.
    On the map of India, three Asokan Pillar inscriptions have been marked as 1, 2 and 3. Determine them and write the names on the strains drawn close to them (All India 2008)
    Important Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 2 Kings, Farmers and Towns (Early States and Economies) Q 32

    Important Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 2 Kings, Farmers and Towns (Early States and Economies) Q 32
    Important Questions for Class 1 2 History Chapter 2 Kings, Farmers and Towns (Early States and Economies) Q 32aImportant Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 2 Kings, Farmers and Towns (Early States and Economies) Q 32a

    Important Questions for Class 12 Historical past Chapter 2 Value Based mostly Questions

    Question 33.
    Read the next passage and reply the questions that comply with.
    One story often known as the Gandatindu Jataka describes the plight of the themes of a wicked king. These included elderly ladies and men, cultivators herders, village boys and even animals. When the king went in disguise to seek out out what his topics considered him, each one among them cursed him for their miseries, complaining that they have been attacked by robbers at night time and by tax collectors through the day. To escape from this example, individuals deserted their village and went to reside within the forest.

    1. Who were not glad with the king talked about in the story Gandatindu Jataka?
    2. What have been the potential causes behind their plight?

    1. The individuals who were not glad with their king w-ere aged ladies and males, cultivators, herders, village boys and even animals.
    2. The reasons behind their plight are given under:

    • The themes of the king talked about the story weren’t glad with the actions of their king, as a result of they have been dwelling in abject circumstances and in insecurity.
    • There was nobody to listen to their complains and see their sufferings.
    • The individuals of the world turned more aggressive as a result of there miseries. They have been oftenly attacked by robbers at night time. And within the day time, tax collectors used to return to bother them and acquire more taxes imposed on them virtually each week or month.

    After this plight the individuals have been pressured to abandon their houses and reside within the forest to guard themselves from the king.

    Question 34.
    Learn the next passage and answer the questions that comply with.
    While these applied sciences typically led to an increase in production, the advantages have been very uneven. What is clear is that there was a rising differentiation amongst individuals engaged in agriculture – tales, particularly inside the Buddhist tradition, check with landless agricultural laborers, small peasants, in addition to giant landholders.
    1. After having new technologies and a rise in agricultural production, why the benefits have been very uneven among individuals engaged in agriculture? Talk about.
    1. The new’ technologies reworked the nature of agricultural manufacturing. In semi-arid areas irrigation was accomplished by wells, tanks and less generally canals. The iron-tipped ploughshare was also used to turn the alluvial soil in high rainy areas.

    However in any case these back-breaking efforts, the benefits share w7as very- uneven. It broke the society amongst landless agricultural laborers, small peasants, ploughman and giant landholders.

    Principally giant landholders had a big piece of land and on account of their richness they w’ere in a position to use new applied sciences and rent landless agricultural labourers ploughmen and small peasants to work – on their fields to get extra income.

    As a result of having no land, the condition of landless laborers turn into very poor.
    They searched for work all over the place. However, small farmers weren’t in a position to use new applied sciences in their fields resulting from lack of monetary assistance. This created uneven state of affairs, where giant landholders grow to be extra powerful and having fun with more benefit, whereas small peasants and landless labourers take pleasure in less benefit.

    Important Questions for Class 12 History