NCERT Solutions to Class 11 History Chapter 2 Writing and City Life
Class 11 History Chapter 2 Ncert Textbook Questions Resolved
Why do we say there was no pure fertility and high degree of food manufacturing that was the cause of early urbanization?
It’s typically stated that pure fertility and a excessive degree of meals production have been the causes of early urbanization. This is for the next causes:
(i) Natural fertility encourages well-established life and farming.
(ii) It paved the best way for animal husbandry.
(iii) The fertility of the nation was also useful
(iv) Flourishing trade and commerce are one other necessary think about urbanization.
(v) The development of writing and administrative our bodies performed an important position in the improvement of urbanization.
Which of the following have been the required circumstances and what have been the reasons for the early urbanization, and what did you say is the result of city progress:
a) extremely productive agriculture
c) metallic and lack of stone
c) division of labor
e) use of seals
f) the army energy of kings
The next have been the circumstances for anisation essential for the urb:
- Very productive agriculture
- ] Water transport
- Division of labor
Causes for early urbanization:
- Lack of metals and stones
- Use of seals
Result of city progress:
- Effective transport system
- Commerce system
- and providers
Why are shifting animals not essentially a menace to urban life?
The livestock keepers of cellular animals had to change ghee, metallic instruments, grains, and so on. In order that they were not a menace to the town life.
Early settlers started to construct temples of their chosen locations of their villages. The earliest recognized temple was a small shrine manufactured from unintentional bricks. These early temples have been very similar to a house because they have been small in measurement. Up to now, there was an open yard around which rooms have been constructed. The temples have been the residence of different gods. The temples additionally had their outer partitions inside and out at regular intervals that no bizarre building ever had.
Of the brand new establishments that have been born after the town life had begun, which would have been depending on the King's Initiative
The temple, trade, sealing, sculpture and writing artwork have been new establishments, born at first of city life. These establishments have been depending on the king's initiative
What do the ancient tales tell us about Mesopotamia's civilization?
The ancient stories of Mesopotamia are priceless sources of data. In response to the tales, Mesopotamia is situated between the 2 rivers Tigris and Euphrates. Mesopotamia was some of the superior civilizations of its time. Its society was divided into three classes, specifically
(a) Higher Class
(b) Center Class and
(c) Lower Class
Individuals within the higher courses led a life filled with comfort and luxurious . Agriculture was the primary occupation of the individuals. Their lives have been often affluent. Religion was an necessary a part of their lives and individuals worshiped many gods and goddesses. Shamas was their most necessary God. It was the sun. Ziggurat was the identify given to the Sumerian temples.
Another Bible Description: In line with the Bible, the flood was meant to destroy all types of life on earth. Nevertheless, God chose the man, Noah, to ensure that life might continue after the devastating flood of the earth. Noo, built a huge boat, sheet. He took a pair of every of the recognized animal species and birds on the board that had been flooded. When the flood destroyed other issues, his boat remained protected with all species. That's how the new life on earth started. An analogous putting story was within the custom of Mesopotamia, the place the primary character was Ziusudra or Utnapisthim.
Category 11 History Chapter 2 More Questions Resolved
Class 11 History Chapter 2 Very Brief Reply Sort Questions
Where is Mesopotamia?
Mesopotamia is within the Republic of Iraq. It lies between two world-famous rivers; Eufrat and Tiger. The traditional Mesopotamian civilization additionally flourished on this space
Why is the Mesopotamia River well-known?
It is well known for the development of urban life, rich literature,
When and where did the archaeological work first begin in Mesopotamia?
First, the archaeological work started on the web sites of Mesopotamia in 1840.
What is the which means of the word Mesopotamia?
The phrase Mesopotamia comes from two Greek phrases "Mesos" and "Potamos". The word "Mesos" means in the center, and "Potamas" means the river. So the land between two rivers (Tigris and Euphrates) is situated on Mesopotamia
What does the Bible describe as a flood?
In accordance with the Holy Ebook, the flood of Christ, or the Bible, was meant to destroy all forms of life on earth. God, nevertheless, selected man Noo to make sure that life continues after the flood
The place did metropolis life develop primarily on the planet? Also identify cities
City life advanced or was born to start with in Mesopotamia. These first developed cities have been:
What kind of cities did the civilization of Mesopotamia come from?
Cities of this sort came up in the civilization of Mesopotamia. These have been:
(i) Spiritual City
(ii) City City
(iii) Imperial City
What have been the primary cultures produced during Roman civilization?
Giant crops grown throughout Roman civilization have been wheat, peas, fowl and barley.
What have been the the reason why the urbanization of Mesopotamia advanced or increased
The explanations for the urbanization of mesopotamia have been as follows:
i) Agricultural progress
(ii) Flourishing commerce
iii) Utilizing Seals
iv) Army Power
When did the ancient city start to flourish in Mesopotamia?
An historic metropolis flourished in Mesopotamia in the course of the Bronze Age, BC 3000 BC
What was the traditional metropolis of Mesopotamia? The identify can also be its capital
Uruk was an historic metropolis of Mesopotamia. Its capital was Baghdad.
(i) Identify the 2 Uruk rulers
(ii) Identify the excavated archaeologist
(i) The two rulers of Uruk have been Enmerkar and Gilgamesh.
(ii) Julius Jordan excavated the town of Uruk in 1913.
Who based Ur and when?
Ur founded Mesanepada. It was based in 2670 BCE.
Record a few of the issues which might be essential for city improvement
Efficient transport network, trade, crafts, providers,
Identify archaeologists who performed excavations at Ur.
JE Taylor, Sir Leonard Woollesy, R.C. Thompson and H.R. Corridor performed excavation work in Ur
What have you learnt about Mar?
Mari was a well-known city of Mesopotamia. This city flourished between 2900 and 1759 BC The ruler of Akkad Sargon destroyed 2350, but restored his misplaced glory to the 2000 B.C.E.
Who was Mari's well-known ruler?
The well-known Mari ruler was Zimrilion, who built a ravishing palace that spread over 204 hectares and 260 rooms
Where's Nimrod? What identify Nimrod is also referred to as? Who and when was it dug?
Nimrod was a well-known city in Mesopotamia. It’s situated on the southern shore of the Tigris River. In historic occasions it’s also generally known as Kalhu. Herry Austen Layard dug this metropolis for the first time in 1845.
Who based Nimrod? The place was it established?
Nimrod founded Shalmanesar-I in 1295 BCE. This city was additionally made the capital of the empire by one other ruler, Asur-Narispal, in 880 BCE.
What did Mesopotamian tablets include? When have been these tablets written?
Mesopotamian tablets contained solely symbols and numbers. These tablets contained signs / symbols of fish, bread, leaves and have been written about 3200 BCE.
What have you learnt concerning the script utilized by Mesopotamia?
The Mesopotamia manuscript was pictographic. It represented characters, symbols, and photographs of objects.
What was the recognized early language of Mesopotamia? By which language was it exchanged? (HOTS)
Early in Mesopotamia, the language was Sumerian.
What is the Importance of Cuneiform?
The word 'Cuneiform' comes from two Latin words. These words are “Cuneus” or “wedge” and “form” which are “form”.
What have been an important social courses in the early cities?
How the Society of Mesopotamia was Divided
Society was divided into three categories. These categories embrace:
(i) Higher Class
(ii) Middle Class
(lii) Decrease Class
The upper class consisted of a priest, a king, and officials. The middle class consisted of retailers, merchants, landlords, and so on. Whereas the lower class consisted of peasants, staff and slaves.
What was the place of girls in the early levels?
The place of girls was excellent within the early levels. They took half in social and spiritual festivals without dissemination.
Which two things present that "few readers of Mesopotamia can read and write"
Two issues present that just a few Mesopotamia readers can learn and write:
(i) 300 characters have been obtainable for reading and writing.
(ii) Reading and Writing These Signs was Very Complicated
The temple was the center of the town middle, where all types of issues associated to the everyday use of atypical individuals have been made.
"Despite natural fertility, agriculture was at risk." Why.
Regardless of pure fertility, agriculture was in peril because:
(i) The Tigris River was overflowing
(ii) The river typically changed the course that causes water shortages in a specific space.
How did the masters improve their influence?
During warfare, the heads who rose to the winners spread their theft among their followers and also took prisoners from the profitable teams and used them as guards. Thus, the winners had increased their affect on the necessity of their followers and proved their friendliness overcome.
What was Egypt's earliest temple metropolis? How did it develop into reliable?
Uruk was Egypt's earliest temple city.
Why was the amount of literacy in Mesopotamia so sluggish?
The number of giant symbols mixed with complexity. the language led to a low degree of literacy in Mesopotamia.
What kind of family system was widespread in Mesopotamia society?
The nuclear family system was widespread in Mesopotamia society. Such a household includes a man, his spouse and his youngster.
How many slaves have been in Mesopotamia society?
These kinds of slaves have been there in Mesopotamia society.
(i) Conflict Prisoners
(ii) Youngsters Bought by Their Mother and father
iii) Indebted Individuals (Individuals Did not Repay Their Loans)
What have been individuals's leisure formats?
Individuals entertained alternative ways of dancing, singing, enjoying flute, searching wild animals, watching wrestling, and so forth.  Query 35.
Named the famous temples that have built the individuals of the early cities.
An important temples built by early city individuals have been as follows.
What kind of communities did the dominion of Mari reside in?
Farmers' associations and pastorists lived in the Kingdom of Mari.
Who constructed an exquisite palace in Mari? How many rooms have been there in this palace?
Mari's giant palace was constructed by Zimrilim (1810-1760). There were 260 rooms in this palace and spread over 2.4 hectares
What have been the three unique features of Mesopotamia's city design? (HOTS)
Three unique features of Mesopotamian civilization have been:
(i) Cities have been constructed based on a pre-planned technique.
(ii) The baked bricks have been used for development.
What was the famous epic of Sumerian literature?
The famous epic of Sumer's literature was "Gilgamesh". It also has a singular place on the planet of literature.
When and how was Gilgamesh shaped?
In 2000, Gilgamesh consisted of 12 tablets in BCE.
When and the place was Mesopotamia's Manuscript Found?
The Mesopotamia manuscript was discovered in summer time 3200 BCE.
Describe two properties of the Mesopotamia script.
The 2 features of the Mesopotamia script have been:
(i) It was written on clay boards.
) It was written from left to right.
What was Mesopotamian's earliest recognized language? Which language replaced it and when?
Early language recognized by Mesopotamian was Sumerian. It was changed by Akkad around 2400 BC.
Describe briefly the which means of the script
(i) Writing helped to unfold schooling,
(ii) It helped to promote trade and also the fashionable state of society at that time.
What have you learnt about stels?
Class 11 History Chapter 2 Brief answer Sort Questions
Why do Europeans contemplate Mesopotamia necessary? Give reasons. (VBQ)
Europeans thought-about Mesopotamia essential for the following causes:
(i) The Previous Testomony refers to what refers to "Shimar" or Sumer (a land built by cities). It clearly refers to Mesopotamia, as a result of there were early deliberate cities.
(ii) European researchers and tourists referred to Mesopotamia of their ancestral land.
(iii) Archaeological discoveries additionally show that Europeans have been interested on this space.
“The rivers have a decisive impact on civilization”. Justify this claim with Mesopotamia. (HOTS)
Mesopotamia is situated between two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris. Each of those rivers originate from Mount Armenia in in the present day's Turkey. They drained a huge mountain area. Though the local weather in this area is dry, agriculture continues to be potential because of irrigation. The favorable state of affairs in agriculture encouraged individuals to stay in this space. Food surplus manufacturing enabled agricultural communities to feed individuals comparable to craftsmen, clergymen, rulers, troopers, and so forth. who didn’t interact in agriculture. Nomadic pastoralistic communities are giving these individuals different important needs for day by day use. Thus, solving all these in this space paved the best way for the rise of civilization.
Present some details that point to the geographical variety of Iraq
Geographic variety existed in Iraq. Some of these arguments that help it are:
(i) The Northeast is a lush green space.
(ii) There’s plenty of rainfall within the space that is adequate for rising crops.
(iii) There are big mountainous areas within the northern region referred to as steppe. .
iv) The Tigris River and its tributary, which give communication routes to the mountainous region of Iran
The southern area of Mesopotamia is a desert, however the rivers Euphrates and Tigris help urban life here . These rivers report distilled water in the space and make the soil fertile. When the river Euphrates goes to the desert, it’s divided into small channels. These river canals offered watering crops prior to now. Crops similar to wheat, barley, peas or lentils have been grown right here, although the rainfall was not enough. Within the northeastern area sheep goats have been grazed by steppe by means of Mesopotamia. Milk, wool and meat have been produced on this area in bulk. Fish was additionally obtainable abundantly. The day palm gave fruit in the summer. Based mostly on these information, we will conclude that these areas are extraordinarily necessary for Mesopotamia.
“The use of seals played an important role in the development of urbanization in Mesopotamia.” Talk about.
Several seals have been excavated from Mesopotamia. These have been product of stone and cylindrical. These seals have been outfitted with a stick and then wrapped over moist clay so that a steady picture was engraved on it. This work was finished by skilled craftsmen. The owner's identify, his God, his officers, his ranks, and so on. It was additionally engraved. Traders used seals to send their goods from one place to another. The products have been first packed and sealed at the finish of the package deal to make sure its authenticity. Within the event that the seals have been discovered to be distorted, it meant that the back was driven in a method that was otherwise protected and protected. Certainly, we will say that using seals performed an necessary position within the progress of urbanization.
“The Euphrates River of Ancient Mesopotamia was a world-famous trading route”. How are you going? (HOTS)
Up to now, the transportation of products, meals grains and different important commodities was carried out on animals of a load or a trailer. It was a time-consuming exercise and an extended course of. The river Euphrates helped individuals eliminate this activity. It flows by means of your complete area of Mesopotamia. It provided individuals one of many least expensive means of transport that made it potential to transport bulk items in problem. Boats driven by the wind course have been obtainable freed from charge. Several of its currents shaped a superb supply of waterborne visitors. A lot of the deal began on this route. So we will say that the Euphrates River was a well known trade route.
Explain, by means of example, how a obligatory labor pressure enabled the construction of temples, palaces, buildings,
The King of Mesopotamia loved the very best standing of society and enjoyed nice energy. The king made the workforce compulsory for all these dwelling in the empire to supply their providers to the gods of the town and build temples. For instance, the construction of a temple in Uruk was carried out by 1,500 individuals working 10 hours a day. This work continued for five years. No one can apply for immunity from compulsory work. For many who took part in a obligatory job, they have been paid grain
How did a manuscript seem within the image?
The hint of the written language has come from Sumer Mesopotamia. They are dated 3200 BC. It is believed that the written language aroused the clergymen of the temple who have been ordained to care for the temples independently by the king. They had to hold monitor of the bills and revenue of the temples. In order that they began to color the merchandise donated to the temples on a clay wall. At this level, they started to keep this info. The Uruk Temple has revealed an inventory of 5000 such tablets. They engraved footage akin to wines, fish, and so on. Signs and numbers. Now it was easier to recollect things.
What have you learnt concerning the historic city of Mesopotamia in Ur?
(i) Mesapnanda based this metropolis in 2670 BCE. It was a well known business middle, and Elemites destroyed about 2200 BC.
(ii) Ur was re-established in Ur-Namm in 2100 BC.
. excavator JE Taylor in 1854-55.
(iv) This city is designed for excavations with out design.
(v) The quarrying passed off on a big scale within the 1920s and within the 1930s beneath the supervision of Sir Leonard at Woollsey.
What elements recommend that Ur was an undoubted city?
Ur was an sudden metropolis because quarrying reveals that folks used family waste on the road. In consequence, road levels began to develop. Holders needed to increase the extent of their house so that the light would fit into their rooms. It was attainable by means of doors, not windows. Many superstitious beliefs have been additionally amongst their homes underneath Ur. For instance, they raised the edge to a home that brought wealth. They believed that the first door that didn't open the second house was good and commendable. If the door opens outward, it’s believed that their tense relationship between husband and spouse
Talk about the traits of city planning in urban society
Talk about the important thing values of urban planning in Mesopotamia.
Options of Urban Planning in Early Urban Society:
(i) The cities of Mesopotamia have been designed in response to a plan.
(ii) Specific attention was paid to the power of the building.
iii) Roasted bricks have been used for building development
. iv) Violation of constructing laws was severely addressed.
(v) Most buildings, ie houses, have been one-off. These houses had an open yard up to now.
(vi) Some individuals also constructed their home basement to heat.
vii) There was additionally sufficient area in urban roads
What have you learnt concerning the historic Mesopotamian metropolis of Kish?
The ancient metropolis of Mesopotamia Kish is situated 12 kilometers east of Babylon. This city flourished around three,000 BCE rulers underneath Urtung, who attacked Iran and needed to rob and rob. This city reached a peak of prosperity between 2800 and 2300 BC. It continued to flourish at 600 BC Asti. Kish's first female leader was Ku-Baba, who rose to the throne at 2450 BCE. Excavation work was carried out by the French archaeologist in 1912-1914 CE. There the archaeologists digged here a temple and in depth palaces.
Identify two French archaeologists who took artwork mines in Lagish. Describe briefly its ruler Gudea.
Lagish, a outstanding city of Mesopotamia, found two French archeology Earnest de-Sarzec and Gaston Cross. Gudea, Lagish's biggest ruler, ruled 2144-2104 BCE. He was highly regarded amongst his individuals as a lover of his spiritual actions, his liberal angle, and justice. He additionally attended numerous architecture and built many temples and lots of his personal statues. He additionally inspired commerce. Because of his efforts, the promotion of commerce, individuals turned rich in their territory. This metropolis began to lose its glory after the dying of Gudea.
What have you learnt concerning the sacred temples of Mesopotamia? What have been they referred to as?
The faith of Mesopotamia was plural. Every city worshiped totally different gods and goddesses akin to Erlin, Marduk, Ashur, and so forth.
They worshiped their gods and goddesses in temples generally known as Ziggurats. Ziggurats represented a holy mountain where gods and men might meet. Early constructed on a small ceramic substrate; when the time passed, these platforms grew and grew, creating the basic Mesopotamian ziggurat. They resembled steep pyramids with a flat foot on which the shrine can be built.
What have you learnt about Nineveh's start?
Nineveh is situated on the japanese shore of the Tigris River. It was founded by Ninus within the 19th century. It was then unfold over an area of 1800 hectares. Nineveh made super progress underneath the Sennacharets of Asvria rulers. He dominated 700-681 BCE and constructed a ravishing palace right here. The palace was 210 meters vast and 200 meters large. The palace adorned with lovely footage and paintings. He additionally built many temples and buildings. He obtained many channels that produced water for irrigation. To make sure peace in Nineveh, he built a wall around the metropolis.
Describe briefly the achievements of the Ashurban Palace.
Ashurbanipal was a well known ruler of Nineveh. He ruled 668-627 BCE. He did every thing he might to the good craftsmen and artists all over his kingdom to Nineveh. He built many lovely temples and buildings. He also acquired repaired previous buildings and temples. Most of the gardens he has constructed add magnificence to his capital. He also patronized the literature and constructed an enormous library within the Nabu Temple. All of the literary works in the library have been organized by topic.
Describe the position of girls in Mesopotamia society
Ladies take pleasure in respect in society. They enjoy the equal status of men in spiritual and social life.
- Ladies have been free to set up their very own buying and selling and even hold slaves for either men or ladies. her husband
- How is the division of labor in the primary factor behind the growth of urbanization? Clarify with an example
because, the individuals of cities were not self-sufficient. They trusted different varieties of providers.
A person engaged in making stone seals requires Bronze metallic for engraving it. They might not make tools of his personal. Beside this he additionally needed to depend upon different individual for shade stones required for making seals. He did know commerce, and needed to rely upon trades or other individuals who rendered this providers to him. Briefly, he had to depend upon others. Thus, all these features have been carried out with mutual co-operation.
How did the amalgamation of various castes and communities give delivery to a brand new civilization?
Mari was an essential metropolis of historic Mesopotamia. The town regained its historic splendor in 2000 BCE, when Amorite dynasty declared her its capital. It was again destroyed throughout Hammurabi’s invasion in 1759 BCE.
The individuals dwelling here have been agriculturists and pastoralists. They belonged to varied communities corresponding to Akkadi, Amorite, Asyran and Armenian. The king belonged to Amorite group. The whole Amorite group had totally different dress-codes as in comparison with different communities. The King of Mari constructed a powerful temple at Mari dedicated to the deity referred to as Dagans. Thus amalgamation of various castes and communities gave start to new civilization at Mari. As individuals belonging to totally different communities resided at Mari, the king had all the time to remain vigilant.
“The script of Mesopotamia helped the historians to throw light on this ancient civilization”. Justify the assertion.
The earliest language recognized to the Mesopotamian was the Sumerian. It was changed by Akkadi around 2400 BCE. Regularly, the Aramaic came into prominence by 1400 BCE. Using Aramaic turned widespread by 1000 BCE. Regardless of the fact that there had originated a script in Mesopotamia, nonetheless the speed of literacy was very low. The logic behind low literacy fee was that there were more than 2000 symbols used to decipher. Apart from this, the language was itself very difficult. However really talking, the languages of the Mesopotamian have given a very great distance in helping the historians, who after rigorously analyzing and analyzing it throws a flood mild on this historic civilization.
Class 11 History Chapter 2 Long Reply Sort Questions
What have you learnt about Uruk?
Situated on the bank of the river Euphrates, about 2500 kilometers south-east of recent capital city of Baghdad, Uruk is an historic Mesopotamian city. It came into existence round 3000 BCE, and was reckoned to be probably the most in depth town within the modern world. Uruk unfold over an space of 250 hectares. It was twice in measurement when compared to Indus valley civilization. The town expanded around 2800 BCE. This area increased to about 400 hectares. Almost 50,000 to 80,000 individuals resided here at that time.
Sumerian king Ermerkar was the founder of this town. He additionally constructed here the temple of a well known goddess Inanna. One other well-known ruler of this town was Gilgamesh. He declared Uruk as the capital metropolis of his empire. To safeguard ground from any invasion he constructed an enormous city round it. Here in Uruk the conflict prisoner needed to do obligatory labour either for the ruler or for development of temple. They have been paid in grains in return. The widespread individuals have been engaged within the extraction of stones, making mud-bricks, and so forth. as per the order of their ruler.
Uruk had additionally made unprecedented progress in the area of know-how. The invention of potter’s wheel led to a revolutionary change within the area of know-how and additionally helped in utensil making on a big scale.
Describe the primary features of the town of Babylon.
The town of Babylon had played an impressive position in the historic history of Mesopotamia. It was Akkad ruler, Sargon, who dominated from 2370 to 2315 BCE. Being situated on the north-west financial institution of river Tigris it made super progress underneath Humurabiera. Babylon witnessed the emergence of superb era of its history beneath Keldian ruler Nabopolassor. At the moment, it coated an area of more than 850 hectares. Some magnificent options of Babylon have been as follows:
(i) A triple wall was constructed all-around the town to safeguard it from any overseas menace.
(ii) A massivq Ziggurat was the primary middle of attraction in Babylon.
(iii) It was additionally a well-known business middle.
(iv) The town had additionally made an incredible progress in the area of language, literature, science, drugs, and so on.
Describe the character of early city society underneath Mesopotamia.
“There was a great disparity among the different sections of the Mesopotamian society”. Explain.
The early urban society was divided into three courses. The first class or group of the individuals coming from elites and consisted of the king (Monarch), the priest, the officers, wealthy merchants and businessmen, high army officials, and so forth. They led an expensive life and lived in magnificent buildings and palaces. They wore expensive clothes and used to eat sumptuous foods. The individuals of this class have been served by a number of men and ladies slaves. The individuals belonging to second class consisted of the individuals akin to small scale merchants, artisans, state officers, intellectuals, and so forth. Like upper or 1st class additionally they led a lifetime of luxury. The third property or class individuals constituted the bottom strata of the society. Their life was very miserable. The lifeless bodies of the upper class individuals have been buried along with valuable gadgets similar to gold vessels, oyster shell, lapis lazuli, and so on. However, the lifeless bodies of widespread individuals have been buried along with unusual pots, and so on. It clearly signifies that there was great disparity among the many totally different sections of society.
Illustrate the development of temple and gradual growing of actions of temples in Mesopotamia.
Mesopotamian temples have performed a big position within the history of Mesopotamia. They constructed temples and devoted them to their totally different gods and goddesses. Their temples have been devoted to Nanna, Anu, Enki and Inanna. Apart from these 4 deities, each city had its personal deity who was thought-about to be the protector of the respective town.
Temples of early Mesopotamia have been comparatively smaller in measurement. They have been also manufactured from unbaked bricks. With the passage of time, the temple started to take new form. Their significance in addition to measurement began to extend. They used to construct their temples on the hill tops because they believed that God (deities) dwell on the hill-top. These temples have been made from baked bricks.
One of the peculiar options of these temples was that their outer partitions had inward and outward bend at regular intervals. The temple had a courtyard and there were several rooms around it. The picture of the deity was positioned in the primary room. Some rooms served as dwelling places for clergymen and other rooms have been meant to remain for the pilgrims.
Growing Actions of the Temples:
(i) Temples served as middle of imparting schooling, the place the clergymen used to function academics.
(ii) Land hooked up to temples was also used for industrial functions.
(iii) Temples have been also engaged in sales and purchases of goods and also used to offer advance loans to the merchants and charge interest thereon.
(iv) The individuals provided grains, curd, dates, and so forth. to serve their deities. Additionally they sacrificed ox, sheep, goat, and so forth. to supply their blessings.
(v) Temples also served because the centers for entertainment and offered a standard platform for the individuals to satisfy one another and get a brand new increase.
What have you learnt about Gilgamesh? Clarify in detail.
The Gilgamesh epic occupies a particular place not only in Sumerian literature, but in addition in world historical past. It was written by Uruk ruler Gilgamesh, who dominated there about 2700 BCE. It was written on 12 tablets. This epic is concerning the achievements of Gilgamesh. Gilgamesh was a famous ruler of Uruk. He was a fantastic ruler and laid the inspiration of an enormous empire. To secure the Uruk towards any menace of the overseas ruler he constructed a nicely round it with a view to finish his tyrannical rule. Individuals prayed to deity, Anu. Because of this, God Anu ordered the goddess Arur to create such a God who might surpass Gilgamesh. The goddess created Enkidu who fought with Gilgamesh. He was impressed by his bravery and turned a quick pal.
“They both performed several commendable works and decided to kill a demon of Elam known as Humbaba. After a terrible war, Gilgamesh finally killed Humbaba. Impressed by the bravery of Gilgamesh, Ishtar fell in love with her.
Gilgamesh’s friend Enkidu fell in love with a beautiful dancing girl. This enraged the deities. So they decided to end the life of Enkidu. Soon after he fell ill and died. The death of Enkidu deeply hurt Gilgamesh. He began to think one day that he will also die. Thus he began his search to attain immortality, but no one could ever become immortal. At the time of creation of a human being God gave him (the man) death and kept life with them. Despite this he did his best to become immortal.
Finally, he thought about Utnapishtim. Being impressed by his efforts Utnapishtim revealed the secret of immortality through the pant lying at the button of an ocean (sea). Gilgamesh accepted this challenge and jumped into the sea to bring the said plant. On his return he was very tired and fell asleep. Meanwhile a snake came here and took away that plant. When he woke up he saw the desired plant was missing. Finally, he understood the fact that the man can never become immortal. He came back to his native city. After many years he became emotional on seeing his city. He realised the fact that hi. sons will continue to enjoy the vast empire built by him after his death.
State the points of similarities and differences between Indus valley and Mesopotamia a n civilization.
(i) Both are river valley civilizations. Indus valley civilization flourished along the bank of river Indus, while Mesopotamian civilization flourished along the banks of Tigris and Euphrates.
(ii) Both are known for their excellent town planning.
(iii) Baked bricks were used for construction.
Indus valley Civilization Regarding town planning • Lack of town planning • Excellent town planning • Streets were narrow • Streets were wider and straight. • No uniformity was followed while constructing houses. • Uniformity was followed in the construction of houses. City was divided into a number of blocks. Regarding
Drainage system was not efficient. Drains were not covered and water flowed from it through clay pipes. Drainage systemwas very efficient. It was far excellent when compared toother contemporary civilizations.
What do you know about the palace at Mari of King Zimrilim?
The Great Palace of Mari was the residence of royal family. This palace was the hub of administration and a centre of production of beautiful ornaments. It was famous palace of his time. Many minor kings from north Syria came to see it, carrying with him a letter of introduction from royal friends of the king of Mari. The king met all of them and shared food with them. The palace had only a entrance from the north and had a large courtyard such as 131 were beautifully paved. The king also met foreign delegates in 132 rooms, which were decorated with wall paintings and illustrations. This sprawling structure was spread over an area of 2.4 hectares having 260 rooms.
Why were there often clashes between the animal herders and farmers of Mari?
There were a number of factors responsible for their conflicts. Some of them are given below:
(i) The shepherds of Mari used to take their herds through the standing crops on their way when going out in search of water. It caused immense damage to the crops of the farmer.
(ii) The shepherds (animal herders) used to invade the inhabitants of the villages by farming communities and indulged into lost and plunder.
(iii) Sometimes the farmers used to their (animal herder’s) way, which hampered their access to sources of water. It also led to clashes between them.
(iv) Some groups of the herders used to serve as agricultural laborers or helpers in assisting in harvest. With the passage of time their income increased and they became prosperous. Then they began to live a settled life, which was not acceptable to farmers. It also led to the emergence of struggle or clashes between them.
Class 11 History Chapter 2 Passage Based Questions
Read the following passages and answer the questions that follow:
In India, early stone seals were stamped. In Mesopotamia until the end of the first millennium BCE, cylindrical stone seals, pierced down the center, were fitted with a stick and rolled over wet clay so that a continuous picture was created. They were carved by very skilled craftsmen, and sometimes carry writing; the name of the owner, his god, his official position, etc. A seal could be rolled on clay covering the string knot of a cloth package or the mouth of a pot, keeping the contents safe. When rolled on a letter written on a clay tablet, it became a mark of authenticity. So the seal was the mark of a city dweller’s role in public life.
(i) Which type of material was used to make seals?
(ii) What were the various types of seals?
(iii) Who carved these seals? Write a few features of these seals (Mesopotamian seals).
(i) Seals were made of stones. It is evident from the fact that until the end of the first millennium BCE, cylindrical stone seals were prevalent in the society.
(ii) There were two types of seals. These were:
- Stamp seals
- Cylindrical seals
(iii) These seals were carved by skilled craftsmen.
- Artistically the carving of the seals was of excellent quality.
- Engraving on these seals depict the scene of every day life.
- The inscribed sign describes the authenticity of the seal.
Today, Mesopotamian excavators have much higher standards of accuracy and care in recording than in the old days, so that few dig huge areas the way Ur was excavated. Moreover, few archaeologists have the funds to employ large teams of excavators. Thus, the mode of obtaining data has changed.
Take the small town at Abu Salabikh, about 10 hectares in area in 2500 BCE with a population less than 10,000. The outlines of walls were at first traced by scraping surfaces. This involves scraping off the top few millimetres of the mound with the sharp and wide end of a shovel or other tool. While the soil underneath was still slightly moist, the archaeologist could make out different colours, textures and lines of brick walls or pits or other features.
A few houses that were discovered were excavated. The archaeologists also sieved through tons of earth to recover plant and animal remains, and in the process identified many species of plants and animals and found large quantities of charred fish bones that had been swept out on to the streets. Plant seeds and fibres remained after dung cakes had been burned as fuel and thus kitchens were identified.
Living rooms were those with fewer traces. Because they found the teeth of very young pigs on the streets, archaeologists concluded that pigs must have roamed freely here as in any other Mesopotamian town. In fact, one house burial contained some pig bones—the dead person must have been given some pork for his nourishment in the afterlife! The archaeologists also made microscopic studies of room floors to decide which rooms in a house were roofed (with poplar logs, palm leaves, straw, etc.) and which were open to the sky.
(i) Explain in brief the procedure adopted to discover Abu Salabikh? Why had Mesopotamian excavators much higher standards of accuracy?
(ii) What do you know about Abu Salabikh?
(iii) What does the presence of pig bones along with burial indicate?
(i) The procedure involves the scraping off the top few millimeters of the mound with the sharp and wide and of a shovel or other tools. The digging work was carefully carried out with high standards for accuracy. A few archaeologists employed large team of excavators to carry out excavation work. The mode of data collecting was totally different.
(ii) Abu Salabikh was a famous Mesopotamian town. It was spread over an area of 10 hectares in 2500 BCE with a population of less than ten thousand.
(iii) The presence of pig bones along with burial indicates that the dead person must have been given some pork for his nourishment.
An Early Library:
In the iron age, the Assyrians of the north created an empire, at its height between 720 and 610 BCE, that stretched as far west as Egypt. The state economy was now a predatory one, extracting labor and tribute in the form of food, animals, metal and craft items from a vast subject population.
The great Assyrian kings, who had been immigrants, acknowledged the southern region, Babylonia, as the center of high culture and the last of them, Ashurbanipal (668-627 BCE), collected a library at his capital, Nineveh in the north. He made great efforts to gather tablets on history, epics, omen literature, astrology, hymns and poems. He sent his scribes south to find old tablets. Because scribes in the south were trained to read and write in schools where they all had to copy tablets by the dozen, there were towns in Babylonia where huge collections of tablets were created and acquired fame. And although Sumerian ceased to be spoken after about 1800 BCE, it continued to be taught in schools, through vocabulary texts, sign lists, bilingual (Sumerian and Akkadian) tablets, etc. So even in 650 BCE, cuneiform tablets written as far back as 2000 BCE were intelligible – and Ashurbanipal’s men knew where to look for early tablets or their copies.
Copies were made of important texts such as the Epic of Gilgamesh, the copier stating his name and writing the date. Some tablets ended with a reference to Ashurbanipal. I, Ashurbanipal, king of the universe, king of Assyria, on whom the gods bestowed vast intelligence, who could acquire the recondite details of scholarly erudition, I wrote down on tablets the wisdom of the gods … And I checked and collated the tablets. I placed them for the future in the library of the temple of my god, Nabu, at Nineveh, for my life and the well-being of my soul, and to sustain the foundations of my royal throne.
More important, there was cataloguing: a basket of tablets would have a clay label that read: ‘n number of tablets about exorcism, written by X’. Ashurbanipal’s library had a total of some 1,000 texts, amounting to about 30,000 tablets, grouped according to subject.
(i) Which type of state economy was prevalent at that time?
(ii) Who established a huge library at Nineveh?
(iii) (a) Name the place acknowledged as the center of high culture by Assyrian.
(b) Who helped Ashurbanipal to collect huge tablets of different literary texts and how?
(iv) How many texts were in Ashurbanipal’s library?
(v) Describe the achievements of Ashurbanipal.
(i) At that time state economy was predatory. It was focused on extracting labour in the form of food, animals, metals and craft items, etc. from a large section of population.
(ii) The great Assurian king Assurbanipal established a huge library at Nineveh.
(iii) (a) Babylonia
(b) Skilled scribes of the south helped him to collect huge tablets of different literary texts. These scribes were trained to read and write in schools where huge collection of tablets were created and acquired fame.
(iv) There were one thousand texts in his library.
(v) Assurbanipal was the famous ruler of Nineveh, who played an important role in its development. He constructed several buildings and temples and also got repaired old buildings and monuments. He took keen interest in the development of literature and established a massive library in the temple of Nabu at Nineveh. The main subjects were history, epics, astrology, philosophy, science and poetry. He himself wrote many texts and got back the lost glory and prestige of Nineveh.
And, an Early Archaeologist!:
A man of the southern marshes, Nabopolassar, released Babylonia from Assyrian domination in 625 BCE. His successors increased their territory and organized building projects at Babylon. From that time, even after the Achaemenids of Iran conquered Babylon in 539 BCE and until 331 BCE when Alexander conquered Babylon, Babylon was the premier city of the world, more than 850 hectares, with a triple wall, great palaces and temples, a ziggurat or stepped tower, and a processional way to the ritual centre. Its trading houses had widespread dealings and its mathematicians and astronomers made some new discoveries.
Nabonidus was the last ruler of independent Babylon. He writes that the God of Ur came to him in a dream and ordered him to appoint a priestess to take charge of the cult in that ancient town in the deep south. He writes: ‘Because for a very long-time the office of High Priestess had been forgotten, her characteristic features nowhere indicated, I bethought myself day after day.
Then, he says, he found the stele of a very early king whom we today date to about 1150 BCE and saw on that stele the carved image of the Priestess. He observed the clothing and the jewellery that was depicted. This is how he was able to dress his daughter for her consecration as Priestess.
On another occasion, Nabonidus’s men brought to him a broken statue inscribed with the name of Sargon, king of Akkad. (We know today that the latter ruled around 2370 BCE.) Nabonidus, and indeed many intellectuals, had heard of this great king of remote times. Nabonidus felt he had to repair the statue. ‘Because of my reverence for the gods and respect for kingship,’ he writes, ‘I summoned skilled craftsmen, and replaced the head.’
(i) Name the last independent ruler of Babylon.
(ii) Who released Babylonia from Assyrian domination and when?
(iii) Who came into the dream of Nabonidus and what did he say to him? How did he consecrate his daughter?
(i) The last independent ruler of Babylon was Nabonidus.
(ii) Nabopolassar released Babylonia from Assyrian domination in 625 BCE.
(iii) The God of‘Ur’ came into the dream of Nabonidus. He ordered him to appoint a priestess to take charge of the cult in the ancient town in the deep south. Nabonidus describes in his words, “Because for a very long time the office of High priestess had forgotten her characteristic features”. He further said that he found the stele of a really early king and observed on that stele the carved picture of the priestess. He additionally noticed the clothes and the jewellery that was depicted. This is how he was capable of gown his daughter for her consecration as priestess.
The Warka Head:
This lady’s head was sculpted in white marble at Uruk before 3000 BCE. The eyes and eyebrows would in all probability have taken lapis lazuli (blue) and shell (white) and bitumen (black) inlays, respectively. There is a groove along the highest of the top, perhaps for an decoration. This can be a world-famous piece of sculpture, admired for the delicate modelling of the lady’s mouth, chin and cheeks. And it was modeled in a tough stone that might have been imported from a distance.
(i) The place was the lady’s head sculpture discovered? What was it referred to as? How previous was this?
(ii) What have been its distinctive traits?
(iii) Why is it a world well-known sculpture? Which qualities of this sculpture made him so well-known?
(i) The lady’s head was sculpted in white marble at Uruk. It was referred to as the Warka Head. It was 3000 BCE previous.
(ii) The Warka Head had some unique characteristics. These have been:
- The eyes and eyebrows had taken lapis lazuli (blue) and shell (white) and bitumen (black) inlays.
- There’s a groove along the highest of the top, perhaps for an ornament.
(iii) The Warka Head sculpture is world famous as a result of it was admired for its delicate modelling of lady’s mouth, chin and cheeks.
Class 11 History Chapter 2 Map Expertise
On the map of West Asia mark and find the famous cities of Mesopotamia.
On the map given under mark and find the following
i) Zone of agricultural productiveness
(ii) Southern restrict of zone of rain-fed agriculture
(iii) Mountainous region
Class 11 History NCERT Solutions