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NCERT Solutions to Class 11 History Chapter 3 Empire Across Three Continents

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 3 An Empire Across Three Continents 1

NCERT Solutions in Category 11 History Chapter 3 Empire on Three Continents

Class 11 History Chapter 3 Questions in the Ncert textbook

Query 1.
When you had lived in the Roman Empire, you’d have lived in cities or cities in rural areas? Clarify why?
Reply:
I might have favored to reside in the cities of the Roman Empire as a result of it had higher sources of earnings and alternatives to struggle towards frequent pure disasters.

The Roman city had a construction that was quite robust to struggle in everyday life. Because cities got here to the town and have been supported by political and enterprise sectors

Query 2.
Create an inventory of cities, rivers, seas and provinces talked about in this chapter, and then attempt to find them on maps. Might you say something concerning the three lists you've made?
Reply:
World Areas: Europe, North Africa
Island: Sicily
Rivers: Nile, Rhine, Danube, Sind
Sea: Mediterranean, Caspian, Black Sea, Aegean
counties: Gallia, Numidia, Tunisia, Macedonia and so on.
Cities: Constantinople, Naples, Damascus, Alexandria and Rome. (See NCERT Web page 59)
Description of the three product lists compiled:
i) Rivers helped to provide agricultural irrigation crops.
(ii) The seas and oceans helped promote commerce and commerce.
(iii) Cities have been the primary facilities of economic, social and political exercise within the kingdom.

Query 3.
Imagine that you are a Roman housewife who prepares a buying listing for household needs.
Answer:
For the Roman housewife, I would really like to embrace the next in my record when getting ready for a family needs – Roman stained glass, curtains, kitchen home equipment, day by day newspaper, cushion cowl, toys, furnishings and different modem units in everyday life.

Query 4.
Why did the Roman authorities give up silver?
Answer:
The Roman authorities stopped silver as a result of the Spanish silver mine turned empty, inflicting the silver to weaken in the Roman Empire. Now the Roman authorities began to use gold to make cash.

Question 5.
Suppose that Emperor Trajan had actually succeeded in conquering India and the Romans had been in the nation for hundreds of years. How do you assume India might be totally different at present?
Reply:
Trajan is remembered as a profitable army emperor who led the greatest army enlargement into Roman history, main the empire to reach its biggest regional dimension at the time of his dying. He’s additionally recognized for his charity rule, oversees a broad public building program and implements social welfare insurance policies that gave him an enduring status because the second of the five good emperors who led the period of peace and prosperity within the Mediterranean world. [19659004] As in the above paragraph, we will conclude that India had conquered Trajan, would have been the best ruler and prolonged philanthropic rule throughout India. There have to be no democratic concepts and no democratic rights in India.

Question 6.
Go through the chapter rigorously and decide up a few of the primary characteristics of Roma society and financial system that you simply assume it appears like a modem.
Reply:
We found that in Roman society ladies have been fairly economically unbiased, regardless that they obtained married however acquired a share of their property from delivery. It was the primary function of Roman society. This function exhibits us that ladies have been in a robust position in society.

Another modem function of the Roman financial system was that the provinces of the Roman Empire had very robust trade relations, indicating that the Roman financial system was additionally very

Class 11 History Chapter 3 Extra Questions

Category 11 History Chapter 3 Very Brief Reply Sort Questions

Question 1.
What have been the 2 powerful empires that dominated
Answer:
Two highly effective empires that dominated most of Europe have been Rome and Iran.

Question 2.
Which sea separates the continents of Europe and Africa?
Reply:
The Mediterranean separates the continents of Europe and Africa.

Query 3.
Which rivers have been from the frontier of Rome to the north?
Answer:
The Roman Empire was the two great rivers surrounding the Rhine and the Danube

Query four.
What’s the second third century identify within the Roman Empire?
Reply:
The third century of the Roman Empire was

Query 5.
Which languages ​​have been used for administrative purposes within the early empire of Roman civilization?
Answer:
Latin and Greek have been administrative.

Question 6.
Which languages ​​have been spoken within the upper courses from the early Roman Empire to the East and West?
Answer:
The Japanese higher courses spoke and written in Greek, in the West, with the Latin.

Query 7.
Who had set up the system in 27 BCE?
Reply:
Augustus arrange the system in 27 BCE. He was the first emperor on the 27th BCE

Question eight
During which languages ​​was Roman historical past?
Answer:
Most of Roman history was written in Greek and Latin.

Query 9.
What was the system for evaluating Caesar's conduct in the Roman Empire?
Answer:
Emperors have been criticized for his or her conduct in the direction of the Senate

. Question 10.
How did the Romans type their military construction?
Answer:
The Romans had been paid knowledgeable military where soldiers had to be recruited for no less than 25 years

Question 11.
What do you mean by "Augustan's age"?
Answer:
& # 39; Augustan Age & # 39; meant the Augustus empire from 27 BCE to 14 CEs.

Query 12.
What have been the most important urban facilities that alternated the Mediterranean beaches?
Answer:
Carthage, Alexandria and Antioch.

Query 13.
How the Italian Legal System was Built in the Roman Empire
Answer:
In the Roman Empire there was a metropolis middle with its own judges,

Question 14.
Who have been the primary actors in the political in historical past?
Answer:
Emperor, aristocracy

Query 15.
Who was Tiberius?
Reply:
Tiberius was one other long line of Roman emperors. His rules remained from 14 GEs to 37 CEs.

Query 16.
What number of emperors have been within the third century of Rome?
Answer:
Twenty-five emperors ruled in the third century of Rome

Query 17.
What kind of household was there in Roman society?
Answer:
There was a nuclear power business in Roman society.

Query 18
What was the place of slaves in Roman society in the third century?
Reply:
The slaves have been relations in Roman society.

Query 19
What was the authorized right of girls to property when marriage was in Romania?
Answer:
The wife didn’t move to her husband's jurisdiction, however retained full rights to her family's
property.

Query 20.
How have been Marriage Solemnized in Roman Society within the Third Century?
Reply:
Marriages have been usually organized.

Question 21.
Who was Augustine?
Answer:
Augustine was an incredible Catholic bishop who spent most of his life in North Africa.

22.
What was your father's position in Roman families?
Reply:
Father had vital legal management over their youngsters

Query 23.
Which languages ​​have been written and skim
Reply:
Coptic was spoken in Egypt, Punic and Berber in North Africa, Celtic In Spain and the Northwest

Query 24.
What language was used
Reply:
Coptic was used to translate the Bible by the center of the third century.

Question 25.
What have been Amphorae?
Reply:
] Liquids, comparable to wine and olive oil transported in containers, have been referred to as Amphorae.

Question 26.
What was Dressel 20 in Spain?
Reply:
In the midst of the third century, Spanish olive oil was primarily in a container referred to as "Dressel 20".

Query 27
Which nations have been exporters of wine and olive oil within the fifth and sixth centuries?
Answer:
Within the fifth and sixth centuries, South Asia (Turkey), Syria and Palestine turned major wine exporters

Question 28
Sicily and Byzacium referred to Rome
Reply:
Sicily and Byzacium carried giant portions of wheat to Rome.

Query 29

Query 29

] What currencies have been used within the monetary system of the first three centuries in Rome?
Answer:
Silver and gold currencies have been used in the monetary system of the primary three centuries in Rome

30.
What does "late antique" imply?
Answer:
& # 39; Late Antique & # 39; is a time period used to describe the ultimate and tempting period in the evolution and breakdown of the Roman Empire.

Query 31.
What was the normal spiritual tradition of the basic world for both Greeks and Roman?
Answer:
The normal spiritual tradition of the classical world for both Greek and Roman had been polytheism

Question 32.
What does Frankincense mean?
Reply:
Reply:
Frankincense is the European identify for the fragrant resin utilized in incense and fragrance

Query 33.
Who was Diocletian?
Answer:
Diocletian was an emperor who ruled 284-305 within the fourth century

Question 34.
What was the revenue system in Rome firstly of the fifth century?
Reply:
Many Roman households acquired revenue of four thousand pounds of gold per yr

Query 35.
Who was the Olympiodorus?
Reply:
Olympiodorus was a author, historian and ambassador initially of the fifth century.

Query 36.
What did Emperor Anastasius build through the fifth century?
Answer:
Emperor Anastasius built the japanese boundary of Dara for lower than three weeks, attracting labor from everywhere in the East by providing excessive salaries in the course of the fifth century.

Query 37.
What was Papyrus
Reply:
& # 39; Papyrus & # 39; was a reed-like plant that grew along the Nile River in Egypt and was treated
to produce paper material.

Question 38
What textual content sources have been used?
Reply:
Textual content sources include history written by magazines.

Question 39.
Inform me the identify of the 2 phases of the Roman Empire.
Reply:
The Roman Empire may be divided into two levels, the Early Empire and Late Empire

Query 40.
What dynasties did Iran rule in the third century?
Reply:
The Pentecostals and later the Sicanians dominated Iran in the third century.

Query 41
What does "civil war" refer to?
Answer:
Civil Conflict refers to armed battles in energy in the identical country

Question 42.
What was Denarius?
Reply:
Denarius was a Roman silver coin containing about 4 g of pure silver.

Query 43.
How did Emperor Gallienus rule?
(253-68) confirmed their energy by raising senators on army command and reorganizing the army.

Query 44.
What space was coated by the Roman Empire?
Answer:
The Roman Empire coated most of Europe and far of the fertile crescent and North Africa.

Query 45.

Reply:
The sources of paperwork are primarily writings and papyrus.

Query 46.
What space was underneath Iranian control?
Answer:
Iran dominated the whole area, together with south Arabia within the Caspian Sea, and typically giant elements of Afghanistan

Query 47.
What was the position of the army within the Roman Empire?
Reply:
The military was the most important single in the course of the Fourth Century, with some 60,000 troops, and positively had the authority to determine the fate of the emperors of the Roman Empire.

What’s Byzantine history?
Answer:
Byzantine was the creation of another capital in Constantinople. It’s situated within the coronary heart of recent Istanbul, Turkey, surrounded by three sides of the ocean.

Query 49.
Write concerning the quantity of literacy within the Roman Empire.
Reply:
literacy was relaxed and different tremendously between totally different elements of the kingdom. Literature
was extensively recognized in sure categories, reminiscent of troopers, military officers, and property managers.

Query 50.
What do you imply by "principal"?
Answer:
Augustus

Query 51.
What was fiction alive about Augustus?
Answer:
Augustus was the one ruler and the one actual authority. Fiction was that he was only a "leading citizen" and not an absolute ruler.

Class 11 History Chapter 3 Brief answer Sort Questions

Query 1.
How did corruption come into the executive system in late Roman paperwork?
Answer:
In Roman's late paperwork, greater and medium-sized echoes, there were comparatively rich teams, as a result of it took most of its wage in gold and invested a large portion of it in shopping for property, such because the nation. There was, in fact, numerous corruption in the authorized system and in the administration of munitions.

Query 2.
How have been the slaves handled after Lucius Pedanius murdered his slave Secundus? What was the response of the gang at the moment?
Answer:
After Lucius Pedanius murdered his slave Secundus, the ancient incident required every slave underneath the identical roof to be executed. But the crowd gathered to save innocent lives and the upheavals started. The Senate House was overwhelmed. There was a sense of being too critical inside, however the majority opposed the modifications.

Query 3.
What does 540's imply & # 39; Roman & # 39;
Reply:
The overall well-being was notably vital within the japanese half, the place the inhabitants continued to broaden to the sixth century regardless of the impression of the border that affected the Mediterranean within the 540s. In distinction to the West, the politically fragmented empire of northern German groups took over all the main provinces and established kingdoms, greatest described as "Post-Roman".

Query four
Who was Columella?
Answer:
First-century writer Columella, who got here from southern Spain, advisable that landowners should hold gear and instruments twice as much as they needed to improve the state of affairs of staff.

Question 5.
What happened after the demise of the Prophet Muhammad 642?
Answer:
By 642, barely ten years after the demise of the Prophet Muhammad was nice, both the East Roman and the Sasan kingdoms had lowered the number of encounters to the Arabs. Though the conquests that ultimately expanded to Spain, Sind and Central Asia after a century, truly began with the subjugation of the Arab tribes to the rising Islamic state, first to Arabia and then to the Syrian desert on the sting of Iraq.

Query 6.
What’s Frankincense?
Reply:
Frankincense is the European identify for the fragrant resin used in incense and perfume. It is poured from Boswellia timber by hammering the bark and allowing the exudated resins to harden.

Query 7.
Define the regional location of the Roman Empire.
Reply:
The continents of Europe and Africa have been separated from the ocean, which is known as the Mediterranean region, which all the time extends from the west of Spain to east and Syria, and it was the guts of the Roman Empire. Within the north, the borders of the kingdom consisted of two giant rivers, the Rhine and the Danube, and the south into a huge desert referred to as Sahara. This great area was the Roman Empire.

Question 8.
What does the time period "republic" refer to in the historical past of the Roman Empire?
Reply:
The regime during which power was in the Senate, a physique dominated by a small variety of wealthy families that shaped the "nobility". The Republic represented the federal government of the nobility, which was practiced by means of a body designated by the Senate. The Republic lasted 509-27 BCE when Octavia, the adopted son and inheritor of Julius Caesar, defeated it.

Question 9
How was the army an essential central imperial establishment within the Roman Empire?
Reply:
Roman had been paid knowledgeable military the place soldiers had to serve at the very least 25 years. The paid military was a distinguishing function of the Roman Empire. It was an organized body in the kingdom of the fourth century and had the facility to determine the destiny of the emperors. Soldiers endure from better salaries and repair.

Question 10.
What was the fiscal coverage of the Roman Empire?
Answer:
The massive urban facilities of the Mediterranean have been the system of the good Roman Empire. By means of all of the cities, the "government" was in a position to tax regional nations that produced a big part of the wealth of the dominion. Local higher courses actively cooperated with the Roman state in managing their very own territories and raising taxes on them.

Query 11.
How did the Roman survive?
Answer:
The famine in lots of provinces for many consecutive years was clearly shown to males to understand the impact of malnutrition on the onset of disease. So the townspeople who gathered and stored enough grain for the subsequent yr immediately after the harvest, took away all the wheat, barley, beans and lentils, and left the peasants with totally different pulses – when a pretty big part of this city was taken. After the winter had handed, the winter had to resort to unhealthy food in the spring.

Question 12.
What was the standard type of marriage in the third century of Rome?
Answer:
Twenty-one late or thirties when ladies have been married late in teens or early 20s. There was a difference between a person and a wife. Consequently, there was inequality. Marriage was usually organized, and there is no doubt that ladies typically had to management their husbands. Divorce was relatively straightforward and didn’t simply need a declaration that the husband or spouse had married

Query 13.
How was the monetary state of affairs within the early Roman Church?
Answer:
The Empire had vital economic infrastructure in ports, mines, quarries, brickworks, olive oil crops, and so forth. Wheat, wine and olive oil have been traded and consumed in giant quantities, primarily coming from Spain, the provinces of Gaul, North Africa, Egypt and to a lesser extent Italy, the place the circumstances have been suitable for these crops.

Query 14.
How has the Roman Empire been the richest kingdom in the case of the nation's fertility?
Answer:
The Roman Empire contained many areas that had a popularity for distinctive fertility. Campania in Italy, Sicily, Fayum in Egypt, Galilee, Byzacium (Tunisia), South Gallia (referred to as Gallia Narbonensis) was probably the most densely populated or richest elements of the kingdom, resembling Strabo and Pliny. One of the best wine came from Campania. Sicily and Byzacium exported giant quantities of wheat to Rome. Galilee was densely cultivated, and Spanish olive oil came primarily from a lot of properties on the banks of the River Guadalquivir in southern Spain.

Query 15.
How was the Workforce Labored in the Roman Empire In the course of the Augustus?
Answer:
During Augustus, there were still 3 million slaves with a complete of seven.5 million. The slaves have been investment, and the landowners used them from a perspective the place too many individuals might or may be harmed. These issues weren’t based mostly on any sympathy for the slaves, however on exhausting economic calculation. However, if the Roman upper courses have been typically cruel to slaves, abnormal individuals typically showed far more compassion.

Query 16.
What do you imply by authoritarian rule?
Reply:
] The Roman state was an authoritarian regime. The government typically responded to violence, particularly in japanese cities, the place individuals have been typically frightened by the enjoyable of the emperors. Even in the fourth century, a robust tradition of Roman regulation was born, and it was braking even for probably the most feared emperors. The emperors weren’t free to do what they appreciated, and the regulation was actively used to shield civil rights.

Question 17.
How did the cultural transformation happen within the Roman world during its centuries? HOTS
Answer:
On the cultural degree, the evolution of spiritual life occurred with Emperor Constantine. He decided to make Christianity the official religion with the rise of Islam within the seventh century. However there were equally essential modifications in the structure of the area that started with Emperor Diocletian (284-305), and it might be greatest to begin with these. Enlargement had led to the "cutting" of Diocletian by giving up areas with little strategic or economic value

Question 18
What do you mean by Polytheist?
Answer:
Polytist was a standard spiritual tradition for both the Greeks and the Romans. It contained quite a lot of cults including each Roman and Italian gods, corresponding to Jupiter, Juno, Minerva and Mars, and quite a few Greek and Japanese gods worshiping hundreds of temples, shrines and shrines throughout the kingdom.

Query 19.
Outline the time period "late Roman bureaucracy".
Reply:
The "Late Roman bureaucracy" for each the upper and the bigger echelons was a comparatively affluent group because it took most of its wages in gold and invested closely within the buy of landed property. There was, in fact, quite a lot of corruption, especially in the judiciary and in the administration of army gear.

Question 20.
How the Roman Empire's governing system was regardless of many areas and languages ​​
Reply:
] The Roman Empire had numerous areas and totally different cultures, primarily sure by a standard system of presidency. Many languages ​​have been spoken within the Empire. All those who lived within the kingdom have been the themes of one ruler, the Emperor, regardless of where they lived and what language they spoke.

Query 21.
Why are Latin and Greek languages ​​used in administration?
Reply:
Many languages ​​have been spoken within the kingdom. Nevertheless, for management purposes, Latin and Greek have been probably the most extensively used languages. The Latin higher courses have been spoken and written in Greek by the Japanese higher courses, and the boundary between these giant linguistic areas ran between the Mediterranean, the African provinces of Tripolitania (which was in Latin) and Cyrenaica.

Question 22.
Who was thought-about the worst emperor of Rome?
Answer:
The worst emperors have been those that have been hostile to the Senate class and behaved in suspicion or cruel and violent. Many senators needed to return to the times of the Republic, but most of them realized that this led to revolutions if troopers skilled generals and even the Emperor.

Question 23.

Reply:
The massive urban facilities connecting the Mediterranean seashores (Carthage, Alexandria, Antioch, the most important of them) have been the belief of the Roman Empire's imperial system. The fact that the federal government was in a position to tax the provincial countryside, which produced a large a part of the empire's wealth,

Question 24.
What was the impression on the Roman Empire when it took over its energy in Italy and Italy
Reply:
had shifted its power between Italy and the provinces throughout the second and third centuries, the higher courses of the province provided a lot of the cadre who ruled the province and commanded the military and

Query 25.
Answer:
The villages have been within the city. The villages could possibly be upgraded to the status of cities. The town life was extra useful than villages to create higher spaces for meals shortages and even famine than in rural areas.

Question 26.
Who have been the barbarians?
Reply:
The Romans had to surrender quite a bit outdoors the Danube area, while the emperors of this time have been always on the bottom, what the Romans referred to as "barbarians". The speedy succession of the emperors in the third century was an apparent symptom of the empires confronted throughout this period.

Query 27.
Talk about a number of the revolutions that had taken place because the 233rd century, concurrently with the Roman
Answer:
The Iranian ruler claimed that he had destroyed 60,000 Roman armies and even detained the japanese capital of Antioch. In the meantime, an entire host of German tribes or tribal confederations (particularly Alamanni, Frank and Goths) began to transfer towards the borders of the Rhine and the Danube, and all the interval from 233 to 280 occurred repeatedly in a whole line of attacks

Query 28
How did the individuals of Rome stay?
Reply:
The prosperity of individual areas rose and fell

Query 29.
What was the Spanish strategy for advertising olive oil? Question 19
Question 29
Question 29

Reply:
Spanish olive oil was a large business firm that reached its peak between 140 and 160. Throughout this era, Spanish olive oil was mainly transported in a container referred to as "Dressel 20". Dressel 20 was scattered all through the Mediterranean. It was extensively distributed because it offered higher high quality oil at a lower cost.

Question 30.
The Emperor of State XYZ ordered the cessation of slavery and warned individuals to adhere strictly to laws to make his kingdom a perfect model for others. What values ​​does he show?
Reply:
The Emperor of the State exhibits social and ethical values. He understood that freedom is a elementary proper of each human being. He was also an example to different emperors by facilitating slaves. He was a ruler who thought of individuals, had the identical feelings and rights in a standard society. He had a Braveness to battle with others for his topic to present equal rights.

Query 31.
If ladies obtained settled of their marriages according to their wish, what values ​​do they present?
Reply:
Lady he was proper to find her life companion. Nevertheless,

Query 32.
Why do you do was it better than a every day wages laborer? Justify accordingly.
Answer:
The condition of slaves in Roman empire was not higher than every day wages laborer because the slaves had labored as per the instructions of their masters, in order that they could simply survive the day to day requirements of their family. However after the struggle when peace was established in empire they have been easily out there at cheaper rates. Their exploitation was growing at the moment by the upper class of society. Some amendments had been executed by emperors and reformers to improve.

Query 33.
Great merchants would not have paid the truthful worth to poor peasants. What sort of values do traders show for the society?
Reply:
A lot of the merchants considered themselves. In order that they purchased grains at decrease degree from the farmers and bought them at excessive degree store until the hike of charges out there. However they were not involved in sharing their profit with their precise masters who produced it. This type of values among the individuals exhibits that they have been grasping individuals and have been taken with taking advantage only for themselves not for the society.

Query 34.
Should you have been the Roman emperor, how would have you ever managed famine that occurred in your ruling territory in historic time?
Reply:
If I have been the Roman emperor, I might have raised the extent of manufacturing of edible meals and made association to maintain further manufacturing for sustaining famine state of affairs.

Query 35.
Valuable metals improve greed and inflation. What values do government show to stop it from the society?
Answer:
Had valuable metals been out there, it might have elevated the greed of the individuals to accumulate and protect for private purposes. This causes inflation out there and can create hazardous state of affairs for the poor and center class families. Authorities exhibits its moral and social values and has to come ahead to convince the folks that, metals are only the issues of uses. They satisfy needs of the individuals. Slightly than maintaining and preserving it, let it’s out there as foreign money for sustaining financial system of nation so that bizarre individuals might not endure.

Class 11 History Chapter 3 Lengthy Answer Sort Questions

Query 1.
What do you consider the importance of Latin and Greek languages in the Roman empire?
Reply:
“Greek East” and “Latin West” are the terms which are used to distinguish between the two elements of the Greco-Roman world, particularly the japanese regions where Greek was the lingua franca, and the western elements where Latin crammed this position. In the course of the Roman empire a division had endured between Latin and Greek speaking areas. This division was encouraged by administrative modifications in the empire’s structure between the third and fifth centuries, which led finally to the institution of separate Japanese and Western Roman empires.

Latin and Greek have been the dominant languages of the Roman empire. The language of the ancient Romans was Latin, which served because the “language of power”. Latin was omnipresent within the Roman empire because the language of the regulation courts in the West, and of the army all over the place. A great number of Roman citizens would have lacked Latin, though they have been anticipated to purchase a minimum of token information, and Latin remained a marker of “Romanness”.

Greek had grow to be a shared language across the Japanese Mediterranean and into Asia Minor as a consequence of the conquests of Alexander the Great. The “linguistic frontier” dividing the Latin West and the Greek East handed by way of the Balkan peninsula. Educated Romans, notably those of the ruling elite, studied and sometimes achieved a high diploma of fluency in Greek, which was helpful for diplomatic communications within the East even past the borders of the empire. Using Greek at worldwide degree was one situation that enabled the unfold of Christianity, as indicated for example by the choice of Greek. With the dissolution of the empire in the West, Greek turned the dominant language of the Japanese Roman empire.

Query 2.
What have you learnt about Augustus? Explain.
Answer:
Augustus was the founder of the Roman empire and its first Emperor, ruling from 27 BCE until his demise in 14 CE. He was born Gaius Octavius into an previous and rich equestrian department of the Plebeian Octavii household. In 44 BCE he was adopted posthumously by his maternal great-uncle Gaius Julius Caesar following Caesar’s assassination. Along with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus, he shaped the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at Phillipi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among them and dominated as army dictator.

Lepidus was stored into exile and stripped of his place and Antony dedicated suicide following his defeat on the Battle of Actium by Augustus in 31 BC.

After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward facade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the chief magistrates, and the legislative assemblies. In actuality, nevertheless, he retained his autocratic energy over the Republic as a army dictator. By regulation, Augustus held a set of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme army command, and people of tribune and censor. It took a number of years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state might be led beneath his rule. He rejected monarchial titles, and as an alternative referred to as himself Princeps Civitatis (“First Citizen”). The resulting constitutional framework turned often known as the Principate, the primary part of the Roman Empire.

Question 3.
How was the reign of Augustus by 27 BC? Talk about.
Reply:
The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace referred to as the Pax Romana (The Roman Peace). Regardless of continuous wars or imperial enlargement on the empire’s frontiers and one year-long civil warfare over the imperial succession, the Roman world was largely free from large-scale battle for more than two centuries. Augustus dramatically enlarged the empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia, expanded possessions in Africa and Germania, and accomplished the conquest of Hispania.

Past the frontiers, he secured the empire with a buffer area of shopper states, and made peace with the Parthian empire by way of diplomacy. He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing military, and in addition the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting providers for Rome, and rebuilt much of the town during his reign.

Augustus died in 14 AD at the age of 75. He may need died from natural causes. He was succeeded as emperor by his adopted son (additionally steps on and former son-in-law), Tiberius.

Query 4.
Explain the system of administration governed by politicians of senatorial rank in Rome.
Reply:
In historic Rome, provinces have been usually ruled by politicians of senatorial rank, often former consuls. A later exception was the province of Egypt, included by Augustus. After the demise of Cleopatra it was ruled by a governor of equestrian rank only, perhaps as a discouragement to senatorial ambition as Egypt was thought-about Augustus’s private property, following the custom of earlier, hellenistic kings.

The territory of people that have been defeated in struggle could be introduced beneath numerous types of treaty, in some instances entailing full subjection. The formal annexation of a territory created a “province” within the trendy sense of an administrative unit that was geographically outlined. Republican provinces have been administered in one-year time period by the consuls and praetors who had held office the earlier yr.

Rome started expanding beyond Italy through the First Punic Conflict. The primary permanent provinces to be annexed have been Sicily in 241 BC and Sardinia in 237 BC. Army expansionism stored growing the variety of these administrative provinces, till there were not enough qualified individuals to fill the posts.
The terms of provincial governors typically had to be extended for a number of years, and now and again the Senate awarded imperium even to personal residents, most notably Pompey The Great. Prorogation undermined the republican constitutional principle of annual elected magistracies, and the amassing of disproportionate wealth and army power by a couple of men by way of their provincial instructions was a significant factor within the transition from a republic to imperial autocracy.

Query 5.
What was the policy of schooling within the Roman empire?
Reply:
Schooling within the Roman empire contributed to the social mobility that characterised the ancient times of Imperial history referred to as the Principate.

Schooling was obtainable solely for many who might pay for it, since there was no state- supported system of faculties with public funding.

A better price of literacy is indicated amongst army personnel than among the many common population. Educated ladies weren’t unusual, and there was an expectation that upper-class women would no less than attend main faculty, in all probability in the identical courses as boys. Only an elite few, no matter gender, went on to receive secondary schooling.

Modest variety of slaves have been educated they usually performed a key position in selling schooling and the culture of literacy. Academics, scribes, and secretaries have been probably to be slaves. The schooling of slaves was not discouraged, and slave-children may attend courses with the youngsters of their masters. E-book shops have been already well-established in Rome by the start of the Imperial period, and are found also in urban facilities of the provinces.

Books have been costly, but by the later interval, common genres of literature indicated studying for pleasure among non-elites. Emperor sponsored libraries that have been to some extent public, and a rich individual may donate a library for a group, or accumulate impressive personal collections to which in-house students is perhaps hooked up. Literacy is assumed to have declined in late antiquity through the transition away from the classical institutions and practices that supported it.

Query 6.
How was the infrastructure through the Roman empire?
Answer:
The infrastructure system in historic Rome was complicated. A system of thirteen Roman aqueducts offered the inhabitants of Rome with water of varying high quality, the most effective being reserved for potable supplies. Water was used in public baths and in latrines. Inferior kinds of latrine techniques have been found in many locations, comparable to home steads, a Roman fort on Hadrian’s Wall in Pompeii, Herculaneum, and elsewhere that flushed waste away with a stream of water. Romans used sea sponges on a stick and dipped in vinegar after defecation.

The Romans had a posh system of sewers coated by stones. They recycled public tub waste water through the use of it as part of the stream that flushed the latrines. Terracotta piping was used in the plumbing that carried waste water from houses. The Romans have been the primary to seal pipes in concrete to resist the high water pressures developed in siphons and elsewhere. Starting round 5th century BC, metropolis officials referred to as aediles supervised the sanitary methods. They have been answerable for the efficiency of the drainage and sewage techniques, the cleaning and paving of the streets, prevention of foul smells, and common oversight of brothels, taverns, baths, and other water provides. Roman rubbish was typically left to acquire in alleys between buildings within the poor districts of the town. It typically turned so thick that stepping stones have been needed.

The empire of Rome, especially the town itself, had an enormous demand for water. The typical Roman consumed over 200 gallons of water per day. Wealthy households had water provided to their settlements in contrast to many poor who couldn’t afford this. Even these individuals loved the luxuries of Rome’s public baths, fountains, and public bogs outfitted with sinks.

River Tiber was the town’s primary water source before any aqueducts have been constructed. As the population of Rome increased, nevertheless, the Romans taste for water turned an excessive amount of for the river to provide.
The paved roads have been all constructed so they might require minimal amount of restore and provide a really clean surface for travelling.

Query 7.
How was financial state of affairs of the Roman empire?
Reply:
The Roman financial system was underdeveloped and underachieved, as subsistence agriculture, city centers that consumed more than they produced when it comes to trade and business, low standing artisans, slowly creating know-how, and lack of economic rationality.

Some cities have been recognized for specific industries or business activities, and the size of constructing in city areas indicates a big development business. Papyri preserve complicated accounting methods that recommend parts of economic rationalism and the Empire was extremely monetized. Though the means of communication and transport have been restricted in antiquity, transportation within the 1st and 2nd centuries expanded drastically, and trade routes related regional economies.

Financial dynamism opened up one of many avenues of social mobility in the Roman empire. Social advancement was thus not dependent solely on start, patronage, good luck, or even extraordinary capacity. Although aristocratic values permeated traditional elite society, a robust tendency towards plutocracy is indicated by the wealth requirements for census rank. Status could possibly be obtained by means of investing one’s wealth in ways in which advertised it appropriately: grand country estates or city houses, sturdy luxurious gadgets comparable to jewels and silver ware, public entertainments, funerary monuments for relations or co-workers, and non secular dedication comparable to altars. Guilds and firms offered help for individuals to succeed by means of networking, sharing sound business practices, and willingness to work.

Class 11 History Chapter 3 Passage Based mostly Questions
Read the following passages and reply the questions that comply with:

Passage 1.

A serious difference between the 2 superpowers and their respective empires was that the Roman Empire was culturally far more numerous than that of Iran. The Parthians and later the Sasanians, the dynasties that ruled Iran in this interval, ruled over a inhabitants that was largely Iranian. The Roman Empire, against this, was a mosaic of territories and cultures that have been chiefly sure together by a standard system of presidency. Many languages have been spoken in the empire, however for the purposes of administration Latin and Greek have been probably the most extensively used, certainly the one languages.

The upper courses of the east spoke and wrote in Greek, these of the west in Latin, and the boundary between these broad language areas ran someplace across the middle of the Mediterranean, between the African provinces of Tripolitania (which was Latin talking) and Cyrenaica (Greek-speaking). All those that lived within the empire have been subjects of a single ruler, the emperor, no matter the place they lived and what language they spoke.

Questions:
(i) How would you differentiate the Roman Empire from Iran?
(ii) Identify two dynasties who ruled over Iran throughout this period.
(iii) Which empire was sure collectively by a standard system of government and why?
Answers:
(i) The Roman Empire was completely totally different from Iran on the bottom of cultural actions.

(ii) These dynasties have been the Parthians and the Sasanians.

(iii) Roman Empire was sure together by a standard system of government as compared to Iranian Empire. In Roman Empire widespread individuals subjected to one ruler.

passage 2.

Doctor Galen on how Roman Cities Handled the Countryside:
The famine prevalent for a lot of successive years in lots of provinces has clearly displayed for men of any understanding the effect of malnutrition in generating illness. The town-dwellers, as it was their custom to acquire and retailer sufficient grain for the whole of the subsequent yr instantly after the harvest, carried off all the wheat, barley, beans and lentils, and left to the peasants numerous sorts of pulse- after taking quite a large proportion of those to the town. After consuming what was left in the middle of the winter, the nation individuals had to resort to unhealthy meals within the spring; they ate twigs and shoots of timber and bushes and bulbs and roots of inedible crops

Questions:
(i) What did the town dwellers do?
(ii) What does the given passage depict?
(iii) How was historic Roman society divided?
Answers:
(i) The town dwellers collected and saved enough grain for the entire of the subsequent yr.

(ii) It depicts the sick effects of famine which resulted into scarcity of meals.

(iii) Historic Roman society was divided into three courses. These have been:

  • The Patrician
  • The Plebeian
  • The Slaves

Passage 3.

The late Roman paperwork, each the upper and center echelons, was a relatively prosperous group as a result of it drew the bulk of its salary in gold and invested much of this in shopping for up belongings like land. There was in fact additionally quite a lot of corruption, especially within the judicial system and within the administration of army supplies. The extortion of the upper paperwork and the greed of the provincial governors have been proverbial. But authorities intervened repeatedly to curb these types of corruption – we only find out about them in the first place due to the laws that attempted to put an end to them, and since historians and different members of the intelligentsia denounced such practices.

This factor of ‘criticism’ is a exceptional function of the classical world. The Roman state was an authoritarian regime, in different words, dissent was not often tolerated and government often responded to protest with violence (especially within the cities of the East the place individuals have been typically fearless in making enjoyable of emperors). Yet a robust tradition of Roman regulation had emerged by the fourth century, and this acted as a brake on even probably the most fearsome emperors. Emperors were not free to do no matter they appreciated, and the regulation was actively used to shield civil rights. That’s the reason within the later fourth century it was attainable for powerful bishops like Ambrose to confront equally powerful emperors once they have been excessively harsh or repressive of their dealing with of the civilian inhabitants

Questions:
(i) What was the primary purpose of corruption in administration of the Roman Empire?
(ii) What was the position of the Roman authorities in dealing with corruption that was widespread among the greater paperwork and provincial governors?
(iii) What have you learnt about regulation system of the Roman Empire?
Solutions:
(i) The extortion of the upper paperwork and the greed of the provincial governors have been the primary reasons of corruption.

(ii) The government intervened repeatedly to management corruption. The Roman state was an authoritarian regime, dissent was not often tolerated and authorities often responded to protest with violence.

(iii) Roman regulation had emerged by the fourth century, and this acted as a brake on even probably the most fearsome emperors. They weren’t free to do, no matter they appreciated, and the regulation was actively used to shield civil rights. That is why in the later fourth century it was attainable for powerful bishops like Ambrose to confront equally powerful emperors once they have been excessively harsh or repressive of their dealing with of the civilian population.

Passage 4.

The normal spiritual tradition of the classical world, both Greek and Roman, had been polytheist. That is, it involved a multiplicity of cults that included each Roman/Italian gods like Jupiter, Juno, Minerva and Mars, as well as numerous Greek and japanese deities worshipped in hundreds of temples, shrines and sanctuaries all through the empire. Polytheists had no widespread identify or label to describe themselves. The other nice spiritual custom within the empire was Judaism. But Judaism was not a monolith both, and there was a substantial amount of variety inside the Jewish communities of late antiquity. Thus, the Christianization of the empire within the fourth and fifth centuries was a gradual and sophisticated process.

Polytheism did not disappear overnight, especially in the western provinces, the place the Christian bishops waged a operating battle towards beliefs and practices they condemned more than the Christian laity did. The boundaries between spiritual communities have been rather more fluid within the fourth century than they might grow to be thanks to the repeated efforts of spiritual leaders, the highly effective bishops who now led the Church, to rein of their followers and implement a extra inflexible set of beliefs and practices.

Questions:
(r) What do you imply by Judaism?
(ii) What did the Christian bishops do?
(iii) Enlist the names of Roman gods who have been worshipped in temples and shrines throughout the empire.
Answers:
(i) Judaism was a spiritual custom in the Roman Empire.

(ii) The Christian bishops waged a operating battle towards beliefs and practices. The powerful bishops led the Church to rein in their followers and enforced a more rigid set of beliefs and practices.

(iii) Jupiter, Juno, Minerva and Mars have been the Roman gods worshiped in hundreds of temples, shrines and sanctuaries all through the empire.

Passage 5.

‘Late antiquity’ is the term now used to describe the final, fascinating period in the evolution and break up of the Roman Empire and refers broadly to the fourth to seventh centuries. The fourth century itself was one in every of considerable ferment, both cultural and financial. At the cultural degree, the interval noticed momentous developments in spiritual life, with the emperor Constantine deciding to make Christianity the official religion, and with the rise of Islam within the seventh century. But there have been equally necessary modifications within the structure of the state that started with the emperor Diocletian (284-305), and it might be greatest to start with these.

Over enlargement had led Diocletian to ‘cut back’ by abandoning territories with little strategic or economic worth. Diocletian additionally fortified the frontiers, reorganized provincial boundaries, and separated civilian from army features, granting larger autonomy to the army commanders (duces), who now turned a extra powerful group. Constantine consolidated a few of these modifications and added others of his own. His chief innovations have been within the monetary sphere, the place he introduced a new denomination, the solidus, a coin of four(four gm of pure gold that may in truth outlast the Roman Empire itself. Solidi have been minted on a very giant scale and their circulation ran into tens of millions.

Questions:
(i) What was the span of Diocletian regime?
(ii) What innovations had been accomplished by Constantine?
(iii) What does ‘Late antiquity’ imply?
Answers:
(i) The span of Diocletian regime was 284-305.

(ii) Constantine did his major improvements within the monetary sphere, where he introduced a brand new denomination, the solidus, a coin of 4y gm of pure gold that might the truth is outlast the Roman Empire itself. Solidi have been minted on a very giant scale and their circulation was fairly large.

(iii) ‘Late antiquity’ refers to describe the fascinating period within the evolution and breaking apart of the Roman Empire.

Class 11 History Chapter 3 Map Expertise[19659004]Question 1.
On the given map mark the stretch of the 2 continents Europe and North Africa how they’re divided by Mediterranean sea.
(i) Rome
(ii) Naples
(iii) Tyrrhenian Sea
(iv) Sicily
(v) Gaul
(vi) Aegean Sea
(vii) Mediterranean Sea
(viii) Numidia
(ix) Rive Rhine
(ix) Campania
Reply:

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 3 An Empire Across Three Continents 1
2. On the given map of West Asia, mark and find the next cities:
(i) Mecca
ii) Medina
(iii) Damascus
(iv) Antioch
(v) Edessa
(vi) Armenia
(vii) Bukhara
(viii) Samarqand
Answer:
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 3 An Empire Across Three Continents 2NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History Chapter 3 An Empire Across Three Continents 2

Class 11 History NCERT Solutions