Notes on Class 12 Codecs, Examples
♦ Ideas for Getting ready Notes:
- Put together notes using sentences only, never use entire sentences
- The topic line of each paragraph is the major topic and its related concepts. are subsections – one or more relying on the concepts in the paragraph.
- Each subsection might or might not have complementary ideas that turn into subsections.
- Enter the applicable title for the notes or a summary or summary as in the question. Embrace at the very least 4 to six distinctly recognizable brief varieties, that is, abbreviations of words in notes.
- Cowl all necessary points of the notes appropriately to organize the summary. / abstract about 80100 words.
- Write a summary or abstract in full sentences in a paragraph.
♦ Tips on how to summarize a given paragraph
- Read (first chapter): Read the paragraph rigorously and critically. Learn the section straight by way of. Don't cease on the lookout for anything that may trigger you issues at first studying. You need to get to know the writer's tone, type and essential concept.
- Learn once more (second chapter): Reading have to be lively studying. Underline subjects and key information with a pencil. Mark the areas you need to confer with when writing your abstract. Additionally mark areas which are irrelevant. Determine areas you do not perceive and try to clarify these factors.
- One sentence at a time: Now write the most important concept of each paragraph in a single well-developed sentence. Be sure the key questions in your sentence will not be minor details.
- Write Thesis: The important thing to a well-written summary is a thesis. A qualitative thesis assertion might either categorical one fundamental concept or affirm your conclusion on the matter. The thesis often consists of the following elements –
- a clearly identifiable matter or matter and
- a abstract of what you say on the subject,
- . Write: You need to use the thesis as a preface to your sentence summary, while your different sentences can type an entire. The truth is, a superb summary should give ideas, information, or points in the order by which they are given. unique textual content. Provides some transition phrases, akin to then, but in addition, and so on., which assist in the general structure and move of the summary. The following ideas will provide help to write a superb abstract:
- Write in the present format (preferably with lively voice).
- Be Concise – The summary ought to be within a phrase (about 80 words) and be constant with none logic errors. Do not summarize your opinions, ideas or interpretations.
- Examine Accuracy: Please read the abstract again and be sure to have appropriately introduced the writer's concepts and key points. Make sure that the summary doesn't embrace your personal feedback.
- Revise: Change the abstract of fashion, grammar, and punctuation. Right any composition errors and re-write them if vital.
♦ Previous Yr's CBSE Analysis Questions
Learn the section under and reply the following questions: (Delhi, All India 2009)
Efficient talking is determined by efficient listening. Focusing on hearing and understanding hearing takes power. Competent listeners fail in some ways. First, they will drift away. Their attention differs from the speaker's phrases. Second, they will battle. They find counterarguments to which the speaker can converse. Third, they compete. Then they filter. They exclude elements of the message that do not simply match into their own frame of reference. Lastly, they react. They allow private emotions about the speaker or subject to override the significance of the message being despatched.
What can a listener do to be simpler? The primary key to efficient listening is the artwork of focusing. If the listener needs to positively concentrate on receiving the message, his or her possibilities of success are high.
It might require willpower. Some speakers are troublesome to comply with because of both audio points or message format. Then there’s the specific want for the listener's willpower to give attention to what has been stated.
Vigilance helps focus. Physical alertness helps psychological well being. It isn’t solely about bodily fitness but in addition about positioning the body, limbs and head. Some individuals also find it useful to focus if they hold their head slightly on the different aspect. One useful approach to accomplish this is to take an intensive word by making an attempt to seize the important headings and subheadings the speaker refers to.
Taking notes is advisable for the listener's assistance. It also helps the speaker. It provides him confidence when he sees the listeners all in favour of taking notes; eye contact patterns may be very constructive when seen by the observer; and speaker scheduling is useful – he can see when the observe author is typing exhausting and may then use breaks successfully.
Also the place is essential. Contemplate the impression of a much less qualified listener who pushes the chair backwards and strikes. Vertical place helps the listener to pay attention. At the similar time, the speaker regards it as a constructive function among his listeners. Efficient listening expertise influence each the listener and the speaker.
(a) Based mostly on the studying of the paragraph above, take notes of it with headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations each time needed. 5
Title: Effective Listening:
1. Eff. talking will depend on the following:
1.1 eff. listening
1.2 concentrated. by listening
1.three concentrated. to know what you hear
2. The Causes for the Failure of Unqualified Listeners:
2.1 their attention shifts
2.2 they discover objections
2.three they compete and then filter 2.4. they react
3. Ways To Make Your Listener More Efficient :: 194019659031] three.1 targeted. message. cane.
three.1.1 Psychological Well being
three.1.2 Physi. mind-defining body
three.1.three note-taking aids the listener to assist the speaker – give her or him confidence to encourage eye contact
four. Impce. of posture
4.1 helps listeners focus.
four.2 spkr. + ve function among his listeners
♦ Abbreviation listing
Eff. – efficient
concentrated. – centralizing the
message. – message
reed. – acquired
physics. – bodily
+ ve – constructive
means. which means
spkr. – Speaker
(b) Write a summary of the paragraph utilizing notes of as much as 80 phrases and recommend an appropriate title.
Title: Effective Listening
Abstract: Effective talking and effective listening are two sides of the similar coin, each equally necessary. An unqualified listener will fail every time he or she strikes out of the counter, competing and ultimately filtering out the speaker's words. Being an excellent listener is necessary when combined with psychological and physical alertness. The importance of different elements, corresponding to notes and posture, can’t be missed. All of these are highly effective listening expertise and are thought-about a constructive attribute by the speaker. They affect not only the listener but in addition the speaker.
Learn the section under and answer the following questions: (Delhi, All India 2010)
Regardless of all the research, every of us catches the cold and most of us get it typically. If we can’t handle all the commonest ailments, it typically seems ridiculous. Drugs commonly performs transplant surgical procedure and has liberated complete nations from lethal illnesses reminiscent of Typhus and Rutto. Nevertheless, the widespread chilly drawback is unusually troublesome and much stays to be carried out. Cold is understood to be brought on by one of a quantity of viral infections that have an effect on the nasal mucosa and other lungs resulting in seizures, but confused viral variety makes it troublesome to research and restore. In 1960, it was proven that many widespread colds in adults are because of one or more families of viruses referred to as rhinoviruses, however there are still many colds that have not but been isolated from viruses. There are also difficulties because, as a result of they are a lot smaller than the bacteria that cause many other infections, viruses can’t be seen beneath commonplace microscopes. As well as, they can’t be easily cultured in the bacteriologist's laboratory because they develop only in dwelling cells of animals or crops. Nevertheless, an essential current development is the improvement of tissue tradition methods, the place bits of animal tissue can stay and reproduce independently of the body. This has enormously helped virus analysis and led to the discovery of a big number of viruses. Their existence had previously been not only unknown but even uncertain.
The fact that we will get cold repeatedly causes another problem. Often, the virus strikes only as soon as and leaves the victim resistant to new attacks. We nonetheless do not get immunity from colds. Why? This may be because of the incontrovertible fact that while other viruses enter the bloodstream the place they are often resisted by anti-bodies, the viruses solely trigger cold attack cells on the floor. Or it might be that immunity from one of many viruses does not guarantee safety towards all others. Subsequently, it appears that evidently we should endure from colds for some time.
(a) Based mostly on the reading of the paragraph above, notice solely the sections, using abbreviations as vital. Additionally recommend an appropriate title. 5
Title: No management with common cold notes:
1. Easy methods to handle com. cold:
1.1 No remedy to regulate it
1.2 Remedy, Typhus & Plague
1.three Prob. com. cold has not but been resolved
2. Causes of Coldness:
2.1 It’s a viral infection. affecting the nasal passages
2.2 fmly. viruses referred to as rhinoviruses
2.3. For certain colds viruses have not but been remoted
three. Prob. on the detection of viruses:
3.1 Smaller than bacteria, in order that they cannot be seen underneath normal microscopes
three.2. Cannot simply be cultured in the laboratory of bacteriologists. v develop in dwelling cells of crops and animals.
4. Div. of tissue tradition assisted by:
four.1 bits of animal tissue to continue dwelling
four.2 independently reproduced from the body
4.three. 4.3 has led to major no. viruses
4.four. previously unknown and suspicious of their existence
5. No imm. from the chilly:
5.1 viruses that trigger cold assaults only on the surface and not on the bloodstream
5.2 anti-organs can’t resist
5.3 imm. one virus does not present safety from all
5.four you still have the chilly for a while
♦ Abbreviation listing
Eff. – efficient
com. – basic
use. – obtainable
Infec. – infection
fmly. – household
hp – has
bn – been in
lab. – laboratory
V – since
no. – quantity
fm – from
imm. – Immunity
b) Write a summary of the paragraph with comments made in as much as 80 words. 3
Abstract: Regardless of having cures for killing Typhus and Plague-like illnesses, it appears ridiculous that drugs hasn't finished a lot to unravel the widespread chilly drawback. It’s because analyzing viruses continues to be confusing as a result of they cannot be seen beneath commonplace microscopes. Now, with the advancement of tissue culture know-how, a large quantity of viruses, whose existence was beforehand unknown, have been found. We maintain on to the cold and by no means turn into resistant to it, as a result of viruses that trigger a cold attack only on the surface, in contrast to other viruses, get into the bloodstream and may subsequently be resisted by the anti-organs.
Read the paragraph under and answer the following questions: (Delhi, All India 2011)
There’s nothing more irritating than sitting at your desk to review your sincere intentions and as an alternative of with the ability to carry out the activity, you will discover your ideas wandering. Nevertheless, there are specific methods you should use to improve your focus. "Your degree of concentration depends on many factors," says social counselor Samuel Ghosh. "To develop your focus, you need to explore different aspects of the physical and internal environment," he adds.
Initially, one has to attempt to create a bodily surroundings that promotes targeted considering. Whether or not it's radio, TV, or noisy neighbors, recognize the elements that make focus troublesome. For instance, for those who stay in a very noisy neighborhood, you’ll be able to attempt to plan your research in a nearby library.
He disagrees that folks can focus or research in an setting with distractions, akin to arduous TV, by blasting. music, and so forth. "If you are distracted when trying to concentrate, your attention and arrest will not function at optimum levels," Ghosh warns. "Up to two of your senses should be activated simultaneously," he adds. What this means is that the music that puts your ft on the faucet shouldn’t be the preferrred accompaniment to your books.
Additionally, don't place your desk or desk in front of a window. “While there is no cure for the wanderer, one
should try to provide as little stimulus as possible. When you look out the window, when you try to focus, it always sends your mind into the tangent, ”says Ghosh.
In response to him, another essential factor is to set objectives for yourself as an alternative of setting a common objective and then making an attempt. do what you’ll be able to randomly. It is rather essential to determine what it’s essential to do within a sure time-frame. The human mind recognizes fastened objectives and values schedules more than random ideas. When your ideas and objectives are aligned, comply with a targeted system.
He recommends that you simply divide up your schedule for research and recreation. As you research, choose a set of subjects you want and dislike, and save the earlier ones to ensure you have one thing to sit up for. For instance, for those who take pleasure in oral proficiency checks more than math issues, do the math first. Not only do you’re employed more durable, you have got a way of accomplishment once you give up.
Attempt not to sit for more than 40 minutes to stretch. Take a very brief break to make a cup of tea or take heed to a track and sit down again. By no means do you have to sit for multiple and a half hours. Brief breaks will improve your concentration and refresh your mind. Nevertheless, watch out to not overdo it with rest. It will probably have unwanted effects.
Don't disappear greater than anything. Focus is only a self-discipline of the mind. It includes practicality and endurance, and it doesn't take long for it to grow to be a approach of life.
(a) Based mostly on the reading of the paragraph above, make notes only in paragraphs, utilizing abbreviations as vital. Additionally recommend an appropriate title. 5
Title: Methods to Enhance Concentrations:
1. Concentrate on focus. Wandering thought
1.2 radio or tv
1.3 noisy setting
1.four distracting surroundings
2. Concen-healing methods.
2.1 explores environmental elements – each physical. & inner
2.2 recognize distractors
2.3 activate one senses at a time
2.4 maintain the examination table out of the window
three. Managing focus
3.1 set specific objectives as a gen. Objectives
three.2 places your ideas and objectives consistent with
3.three occasions mgmt.
4.1 Set. Objectives and Schedule
4.2 Plan your studies and continue the lesson. four.3 Doing concentration. way of life
5. The Ultimate Help
5.1 Don't Be Discouraged
5.2 Discourage Mind
5.3 Apply and Develop Endurance
Record of Abbreviations
Targeted. – concentration surroundings
. – setting
physics. – bodily
gen. – common
recreat.nl – leisure
hours. – hours
(b) Write a summary of the phrases above in 80 words.
Abstract: There might be many obstacles to focus. Your wandering thoughts, radio, TV and noisy or disturbing setting. But these obstacles might be overcome by following certain methods to increase concentration.
Environmental points – both bodily and inner – must be identified and addressed individually, separately. Focus can be managed by setting specific objectives moderately than setting common objectives. Our objectives and ideas must be placed on the line, and we should also handle time. Recommendations to enhance concentration embrace setting objectives and schedules, and planning your research and recreation time. This makes focusing a life-style. "19659023] Query four.
Read the part under and reply the following questions: (Delhi, All India 2012)
Research has shown that the human mind can process phrases. At a velocity of about 500 minutes whereas a speaker speaks at a velocity of about 150. words per minute. The difference between the two in 350 is sort of giant.
So the speaker has to make an effort to maintain the viewers's consideration, and the listener also needs to be careful not to let his mind wander. Good communication requires good listening expertise. .
Listening starts however goes past hearing. In different words, listening is important however not adequate. Listening includes listening. Listening is a course of that requires focus. In other phrases, listening must be attentive. listening has to do with the ears, eyes and thoughts needs to be understood as an general process involving attentive session, attentiveness and interpretation. Good communication is principally an interactive process. It requires participation and participation. It is very often a dialogue, not a monologue. It is necessary to have an interest and in addition to point out or make it clear that the individual is all in favour of figuring out what the other has to say.
Good listening is an artwork that can be cultivated. It pertains to expertise that may be developed. A great listener is aware of the art of getting excess of what the speaker is making an attempt to convey. He can call, persuade, but not break or interrupt what the other has to say. At occasions, the speaker could also be constant, formulated, and well-organized in his or her thoughts and expression. He might have it in his thoughts, but he can’t march on the right phrases when speaking his thoughts. Nonetheless, a great listener will soothe him, assist him articulate, and help him get by way of the message he needs. convey. For effective listening, additionally it is necessary to remove obstacles to listening. Such limitations may be both bodily and psychological. Bodily obstacles are often associated with limitations to proper hearing, whereas psychological obstacles are more elementary and relate to the interpretation and analysis of the speaker and message.
(a) Based mostly on the studying of the above paragraph, make only acronyms for the notes as applicable. Please enter a legitimate title. 5
Title: Good listening and talking expertise:
1. Research has shown:
1.1 The human mind processes the phrases @ 500 / min.
1.2 spkr. speaks @ 150 words / min.
1.three giant diff. b / w two at 350 ° C.
2. Essentials To Be A Good Spkr. and listener:
2.1 spkr. should have the ability to hold aud. consideration. 2.2 The listener shouldn’t permit his mind to wander.
2.3 good spkr. should even be an excellent listener.
3. Listening Expertise:
three.1 Begins with Listening to – Not Sufficient
3.2 Considerations with Hearing
– Using the Ears, Eyes and Mind
– three.3 Requires Participation and Participation
extra of a selection than a monologue.
4. Good Listening is Art:
four.1 Cultivating and Creating Its Expertise
four.2 Good Listener Knows
– Methods to Get Much Extra Than What SPkr. needs to convey
– to be quick, to convince without interruption
4.three pricey listener
– put spkr. easily
– assist him articulate
– facilitate his access to the message. he needs to convey
5. Obstacles to Listening 5.1 Physics
– Related to Obstacles to Proper Listening
– more thorough
– relates to the interpretation and analysis of SPkr. and message
5.3 These limitations have to be eliminated.
Key: Record of abbreviations
@ – velocity
/ – per
min. – minute
spkr. – speaker
diff. – ero
b / w –
te – even if
name. – dialogue
msg. – message
physics. – physical
psycho. – Psychological
(b) Write a abstract of the paragraph above in about 80 words. 3
Summary: There is a big distinction between phrases that the human thoughts can deal with and converse. The speaker must have the ability to maintain the audience's attention and in addition be a great listener. Listening goes beyond listening to, it hears with attention and requires concentration. One should also be attentive, not solely utilizing his ears, but in addition his eyes and mind. Good listening requires participation and participation, and includes more than a monologue. It is an artwork to domesticate. A great listener must know the best way to be quick and persuade, however not to disturb another. He easily will get the speaker to help him articulate and get across the message he needs to convey. For effective listening, physical and psychological obstacles have to be removed.
Learn the part under and reply the following questions: (Delhi, All India 2011)
The time period dietary fiber refers collectively to non-digestible carbohydrates present in vegetable foods. The significance of these dietary fibers entered the image, when it was discovered that folks whose food plan was wealthy in these fibers, a low coronary coronary heart illness, irritable bowel syndrome, and the incidence of dental caries gallstones.
These rich meals dietary fibers embrace cereals and grains, legumes, fruits with seeds, citrus fruits, carrots, cabbage, green leafy vegetables, apples, melons, peaches, pears, and so on.
These dietary fibers usually are not gastric enzymes. whereas in the small intestine most other carbohydrates akin to starch and sugar are digested and absorbed. Food fibers have the property of holding water and subsequently swell and behave like a sponge as they move via the gastrointestinal tract. Fibers add bulk to the eating regimen and improve intestinal transit time. Some of these fibers can cross via the colon.
In recent times, it has been thought-about necessary to have some fiber in the food plan. Their useful results are in preventing coronary heart and coronary heart disease and in decreasing cholesterol levels. Fibers comparable to gums and pectin have been reported to scale back postprandial (postprandial) blood glucose ranges. These varieties of dietary fiber are beneficial for the remedy of sure varieties of diabetes. Current studies have shown that fenugreek (Methi) seeds, which include 40% rubber, are effective in decreasing blood sugar and levels of cholesterol in comparison with other gum-containing vegetables. Some dietary fibers improve the transit time and shorten the release of ingested meals in the colon. A food regimen with much less fiber, associated with colon most cancers, and dietetic fiber might play a task in decreasing the danger.
The dietary fibers retain water in order that the stool is smooth, bulky and easily eliminated. Subsequently, high fiber intake prevents or alleviates constipation.
The fibers will improve the mobility of the small gut and the colon and decreasing kulkeutumisaikaa have much less time to mucosal publicity to dangerous poisonous substances. Subsequently, there’s much less want to eat. and the power supply could be stored within the necessities. This phenomenon helps to maintain the obesity verify. One more reason to scale back obesity is that high-fiber diets have barely decrease digestibility elements. Dietary fibers can have some antagonistic dietary results by binding some hint parts akin to calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and others. thus preventing their proper absorption. This will lead to a nutritional deficiency, especially when diets include marginal mineral parts. This will develop into an essential constraint on growing the quantity of dietary fiber. It has been steered that a day by day consumption of 40 grams of dietary fiber is fascinating. (Taken from & # 39; Tribune & # 39;)
(a) Based mostly on the reading of the paragraph above, make notes only in sections, utilizing recognizable abbreviations if needed. Additionally recommend an appropriate title. 5 Reply: Title: Importance of dietary fiber Notes:
1. Definition and Significance of Dietary Fibers:
1.1 Reference is made to non-digestible carbohydrates in vegetable foods.
1.2 Individuals with excessive fiber diets had low incidence of
1.2.1 coronary artery
1.2.three dental caries
1.3 Egs. the proportion of meals containing dietary fiber: cereals, pulses, cabbage, carrots, green leafy greens, and so forth.
2. Meals traits of the fibers:
2.1 In contrast to different carbohydrates, they don’t seem to be hajotta the stomach and small intestine enzymes.
2.2. They have features that maintain H20 & v from swelling.
2.3 Adds bulk to weight loss plan and increases intestinal transit time.
three. Benefits of dietary fiber:
3.1 Prevents coronary heart disease. three.2 recognizes cholesterol levels. 3.three Blood glucose degree of Tse.prand.
three.four. ] 3.5 seconds transport time and swallowed meals launch time in the colon.
three.6 Forestall or alleviate constipation.
four. Food optical fiber evaluate of weight problems
four.1 mobility of the small intestine and colon by decreasing the transit time. The will to eat 4.2v is less and power consumption might be stored inside the requirement range.
four.three This phenomenon helps to regulate obesity. 4.4 High fiber diets also have decrease digestibility elements.
5. Antagonistic Effects of Dietary Fibers on Vitamin:
5.1 Binds some trace parts similar to calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and so forth., and prevents their correct absorption.
5.2. This enables for a nutritional deficiency. 5.three can also turn out to be imp. restriction on addition of restriction fibers. 5.four Proposed 40g Vitamin Dose
Key: Abbreviation Listing
(b) Write a summary of the above with about 80 words . three
Abstract: Dietary fiber are the indigestible carbohydrates found in vegetarian food. The intake is essential because decreasing coronary coronary heart illness, irritable bowel syndrome, gall stones and so on. These cereals, grains, and fruits BY sure dietary water-retaining property, so they are useful for the prevention and discount of heart disease. and cholesterol. Additionally they assist hold the weight problems verify and relieve constipation. It is advised that a dietary consumption of 40 grams of dietary fiber per day is desirable as a result of extra dietary fiber might have a detrimental effect on vitamin.
Read the section under and reply the following questions: (Delhi, All India 2014)
1. Muistan lapsuuteni olevani yleensä onnellinen ja voin muistaa kokeneeni joitain elämäni huolettomimpia aikoja. Mutta voin myös muistaa, vieläkin elävämmin, pelon hetket. Lapsena pelkäsin todella pimeää ja eksyä. Nämä pelot olivat hyvin todellisia ja aiheuttivat minulle erittäin epämiellyttäviä hetkiä.
2. Voi olla, että se outo tapa, jolla asiat näyttivät ja kuulosti yöllä tutussa huoneessani, pelotti minua niin paljon. Koskaan ei ollut täydellistä pimeyttä, mutta katuvalo tai kulkevat auton valot saivat tuolin päälle ripustetut vaatteet tuntemattoman pedon muotoon. Silmästäni tulijalta huomasin verhojen liikkuvan, kun ei ollut tuulta. Pieni naarmu lattialla kuulosti sata kertaa kovemmin kuin päivänvalossa ja mielikuvitukseni ottaisi vallan, luomalla murtovarkaat ja hirviöt. Pimeys sai minut aina avuttomaksi. Sydämeni pahoinpitää ja valehtelen hyvin niin, että 'vihollinen' ei löytäisi minua.
three. Toinen lapsuuteni pelko oli, että eksisin, etenkin matkalla kotiin koulusta. Joka aamu menin koulubussiin aivan kodini lähellä – se ei ollut ongelma. Koulun jälkeen, vaikka kaikki linja-autot oli rivissä käyrää pitkin, pelkäsin, että pääsen väärään suuntaan ja viedään tuntemattomalle kaupunginosalle. I might scan the bus for the faces of my pals, make it possible for the bus driver was the similar one which had been there in the morning, and even then ask the others time and again to make certain I used to be in the right bus. On faculty or household trips to an amusement park or a museum, I wouldn’t let the leaders out of my sight. And of course, I was by no means very adventurous when it came to taking walks or hikes as a result of 1 would go solely where I was positive I might never get misplaced.
four. Perhaps, one of the worst fears I had as a toddler was that of not being appreciated or accepted by others. First of all, I was quite shy. Secondly, I fearful continuously about my appears, considering individuals wouldn’t like me as a result of I used to be too fats or wore braces. I tried to wear ‘the right clothes’ and had intense arguments with my mother over the significance of sporting flats as an alternative of saddled footwear to high school. Being in style was essential to me then and the worry of not being favored was a strong one.
5. One of the processes of evolving from a toddler to an grownup is with the ability to acknowledge and overcome our fears. I have learnt that darkness doesn’t need to take on a life of its personal, that others may also help me when I’m lost and that friendliness and sincerity will encourage individuals to love me. Understanding the issues that scared us as youngsters helps to deal with our lives as adults.
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever essential. 5
Title. My Childhood Fears Notes:
1. Recalling my childhood:
1.1 Usually joyful.
1.2 exp. fairly carefree life.
1.three really terrified of dark & getting misplaced.
1.four These fears prompted me very uncomfortable moments.
2. My room at night time:
2.1 issues appeared & sounded strange at night time.
2.2 never complete darkness.
2.three all the time a road mild or a passing automotive mild.
2.four made clothes hung over chair take shape of beast.
2.5 curtains moved even when there was no breeze.
2.6 a tiny creak sounded louder at night time.
2.7 Darkness made me feel helpless.
three. Another childhood worry:
three.1 that I might get misplaced – esp. on my approach house from faculty.
three.2 terrified that I might take the mistaken faculty bus.
three.3 To reassure myself I might:
3.3.1 scan the bus for faces of my buddies
three.three.2 ensure that similar driver as momg.
three.four on faculty/fmly trips-would not let leaders out of my sight.
4. Worst childhood worry:
4.1 not being appreciated or accepted by others.
4.2 This was v I used to be:
four.2.2 apprehensive about my appears
four.three Being pop. V. imp. for me
5. Course of of evolving from childhood to grownup:
5.1 We’re capable of acknowledge & overcome our fears.
5.2 learnt darkness doesn’t take on its own life.
5.three Ppl. will like me if I’m friendly & honest.
Listing of Abbreviations used:
exp. – experienced
& – and
esp. – especially
momg – morning
v – because
pop. – in style
fmly – family
Ppl. – individuals
V.imp. – essential
(b) Make a abstract of the passage in no more than 80 words utilizing the notes made and in addition recommend an appropriate title. three
My Childhood Fears
Summary: My childhood was usually pleased however I was extremely scared of the dark. My creativeness ran wild in my familiar room at night time. Darkness made me feel helpless. I also feared getting misplaced especially on my approach from faculty. However the worst worry I had as a toddler was not being favored or accepted by others. In the process of evolving from a toddler to an grownup we are capable of acknowledge and overcome our fears. Understanding things that scared us in our childhood will enable us to deal with our lives as adults.
Read the passage given under: (Delhi, All India 2015)
It’s shocking that typically we don’t take heed to what individuals say to us. We hear them, but we don’t take heed to them. I was curious to understand how hearing is totally different from listening. I had thought each have been synonyms, but steadily, I realised there is a huge difference between the two words.
Listening to is a bodily phenomenon. Each time any person speaks, the sound waves generated reach you, and you undoubtedly hear whatever is claimed to you. Nevertheless, even in the event you hear something, it doesn’t all the time mean that you simply truly perceive whatever is being stated. Taking note of no matter you hear means you’re actually listening. Consciously using your mind to know whatever is being stated is listening. Diving deeper, I found that listening just isn’t only listening to with attention, however is far more than that. Listening is listening to with full attention, and applying our mind. Most of the time, we take heed to somebody, but our minds are full of unnecessary chatter and there doesn’t seem to be sufficient area to accommodate what’s being spoken.
We come with quite a bit of prejudices and preconceived notions about the speaker or the subject on which he is talking. We fake to take heed to the speaker, however deep inside, we sit in judgement and are dying to pronounce right or improper, true or false, sure or no. Typically, we even come prepared with a unfavourable mind set of proving the speaker mistaken. Even if the speaker says nothing harmful, we’re ready to pounce on him with our own version of things.
What we should always ideally do is pay attention first with full awareness. As soon as we’ve got accomplished that, we will determine whether or not we need to make a judgement or not. Once we do this, communication might be good and our interpersonal relationship will grow to be so a lot better. Listening properly doesn’t imply one has to say the right thing at the right second. Actually, typically if words are left unspoken, there’s a feeling of rigidity and negativity. Subsequently, it’s better to talk out your mind, however achieve this with consciousness after listening to the speaker with full concentration.
Let’s take a look at this in one other method. Whenever you actually pay attention, you imbibe not solely what’s being spoken, however you also understand what is just not spoken as nicely. Most of the time we don’t actually pay attention even to individuals who actually matter to us. That’s how misunderstandings grow amongst households, husbands and wives, brothers and sisters.
(A) On the foundation of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, utilizing headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever mandatory -minimum 4) and a format you think about suitable. Also supply an applicable title to it. 5
Title: Hearing Versus Listening Notes:
1. Distinction b/w listening & hearing
1.1 hearing-a phys. phenomenon
1.2 sound waves are gen.
1.three you hear what is claimed to you
1.4 paying attention-means you’re listening
1.5 listening is utilizing the mind consciously to know what is claimed
2. What is listening?
2.1 greater than listening to
2.2 hearing with full attention & making use of our thoughts
3. What shouldn’t be listening?
three.1 Whereas we pay attention our mind is full of useless chatter
3.2 Not sufficient area to accommodate what is being stated.
3.three Prej. and preconceived notions about the speaker give us a -ve mindset
three.four Even when the speaker says one thing harmless we move our personal judgement
4. What one ought to really do?
4.1 pay attention with full awareness-then make a judgement
four.2 comm, will then be good
4.three interpersonal relationship-become a lot better
5. Listening properly means
5.1 to not say the rt. thing at the rt. second
5.2 typically if phrases are unspoken- feeling of rigidity & negativity
5.three better to speak your mind but with awareness after listening with full concern
5.four listening nicely allows us to imbibe each, i.e., spoken & unspoken
5.5 when we do not take heed to individuals who matter to us-misunderstandings grow
Listing of Abbreviations:
b/w – between
phys. – bodily
rt. – right
gen. – generated
& – and
i. e – that is
prej. – prejudices
comm. – communication
-ve – destructive
(B) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words. three
Summary: There is a huge distinction between listening to and listening. Listening to is a bodily phenomenon however paying consideration and making use of the thoughts to what you hear is listening. If we come with preconceived notions about the speaker we sit in judgement and are ready to pounce on him. We should pay attention first with full awareness and then determine if we need to make a judgement. It is better to talk our mind however after listening to the speaker with full focus. We should take heed to people who matter to us after which there can be no misunderstandings.
Read the passage given under and reply the questions that comply with: (Comptt. Delhi, Comptt. All India 2015)
Though stupidity is usually defined as ‘a lack of normal intelligence’, stupid behaviour just isn’t the behaviour of a person lacking in intelligence but the behaviour of an individual not utilizing good judgement or sense. In truth, stupidity comes from the Latin word meaning ‘senseless’. Subsequently, stupidity may be defined as the behaviour of an individual of normal intelligence who acts in a specific state of affairs as if she or he isn’t very vibrant. Stupidity exists at three levels of seriousness.
First is the simple, relatively innocent degree. Behaviour at this degree is usually amusing. It is humorous when somebody places the food from a fast-food restaurant on the roof of the automotive whereas unlocking the door and then drives away with the meals nonetheless on the roof. We name this absent-minded. The individual’s good sense or intelligence was briefly absent. At this degree, aside from passing inconvenience or embarrassment, no one is injured by stupid behaviour.
The subsequent type-serious stupidity-is are extra harmful. Sensible jokes akin to putting sugar in the salt shakers are at this degree. The intention is humorous, but there’s a probability of harm. Irresponsible advice given to others can also be critical stupidity. An instance is a person who plays psychiatrist on the foundation of an introductory psychology course or doing a TV program on psychiatry. The intention could also be to assist, but when the sufferer actually needs psychiatric assist an novice will solely worsen the state of affairs.
Even worse is the third sort of stupidity. Variety individuals, who would by no means injure another dwelling being, stupidly throw away a box of six-week-old kittens alongside a rustic street. Missing the coronary heart to kill the poor issues, they sentence them to virtually certain dying from wild animals, infections exposure or the wheels of a passing car. Yet they’re able to inform themselves that ‘they will find nice homes’ or ‘animals can get along in the wild’. One other instance of this type of stupidity is the successful native businessman who tries to have as many workplace affairs as he can get away with. He dangers the loss of his enterprise and his residence. He fails to see that what he is doing is incorrect. His is the true ethical stupidity of a person not prepared to consider the outcomes of his actions or take duty for them. The widespread defence of a person guilty of stupidity is-‘But I didn’t assume… ‘. This, however, is not a proper excuse, especially when serious or harmful stupidity is involved.
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary.
Title: Facts about Stupid Behaviour Notes:
1.1 Common def.
1.1.1 lack of normal int.
1.1.2 behaviour without good judgement
1.2 Author’s def.
1.2.1 behaviour of normal int. not appearing brightly
1.2.2 has three ranges
2. Levels of stupidity
2.1 1st degree
2.1.3 typically amusing
2.1.5 nobody injured
2.2 2nd degree
2.2.1 more harmful
2.2.2 intention humorous however probability
2.3 third degree
2.3.2 moral stupidity
2.3.3 unwilling to take resp.
Record of abbreviations used:
int. – intelligence
def. – definition
1st – first
2nd – second
resp. – duty
3rd – third
(b) Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 phrases utilizing the notes made and in addition recommend an appropriate title.
‘Facts About Stupid Behaviour7 Summary: Stupid behaviour is not about a person lacking intelligence but about not using good judgement or sense. The word ‘stupidity’ is derived from the Latin word which means senseless and is outlined as the behaviour of an individual with normal intelligence who acts not very brightly in a specific state of affairs. Stupidity exists at three ranges of seriousness. The primary is the easy and innocent degree which is usually amusing. The subsequent level-serious stupidity is extra harmful and consists of practical jokes. The third degree is worse than the first two when a person is just not prepared to think about the outcomes or take duty for his actions.
Learn the passage given under: (Delhi, All India 2016)
Individuals are likely to amass possessions, typically with out being conscious of doing so. They will have a delightful surprise once they discover something helpful which they didn’t know they owned. Those that by no means have to vary house grow to be indiscriminate collectors of what can solely be described as muddle. They depart unwanted objects in drawers, cabinets and attics for years in the belief that they could in the future want them. Previous individuals also accumulate belongings for 2 different reasons, lack of bodily and mental power, and sentiment. Things owned for a long time are full of associations with the past, perhaps with the family members who’re lifeless, and they also steadily purchase a sentimental value.
Some things are collected intentionally in an try and avoid wastage. Amongst these are string and brown paper, stored by thrifty individuals when a parcel has been opened. Amassing small gadgets may be mania. A woman cuts out from newspapers sketches of model garments that she want to buy if she had cash. As she shouldn’t be rich, the likelihood is that she is going to never be capable of afford such purchases. It’s a innocent habit, nevertheless it litters up her desk.
Amassing as a critical pastime is sort of totally different and has many benefits. It offers rest for leisure hours, as just taking a look at one’s treasure is all the time a pleasure. One doesn’t should go out for amusement as the assortment is housed at residence. Whatever it consists of-stamps, data, first editions of books, china-there is all the time something to do in connection with it, from discovering the right place for the latest addition to verifying information in reference books. This pastime educates one not only in the chosen topic, but in addition usually issues which have some bearing on it.
There are different advantages additionally. One will get to satisfy like-minded collectors to get recommendation, examine notes, trade articles, to point out off one’s latest find. So one’s circle of buddies grows. Soon the interest leads to travelling, perhaps a meeting in another town, probably a visit overseas in search of a rare specimen, for collectors usually are not confined to at least one country. Over the years one might nicely turn out to be an authority on one’s pastime and will in all probability be asked to offer casual talks to little gatherings after which, if successful, to bigger audiences.
(A) On the basis of your understanding of the above passage make notes on it utilizing headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary-minimum 4) and a format you contemplate appropriate. Additionally supply an applicable title to it. 5
Title: Assortment Versus Muddle Notes:
1. Explanation why individuals amass possessions
1.1 get pleasant surprise find useful factor they did not know that they had.
1.2 Previous individuals accumulate belongings v
1.2.1 lack of phys. & psychological power & sentiment
1.2.2 Issues owned for lengthy, full of assoc. with past-dead relatives-so they purchase sentimental worth
1.three Indiscriminate collectors are those that never have to vary home so their assortment turns into muddle.
2. Things collected deliberately to avoid wastage include-
2.1 String & brown paper collected by thrifty individuals once they open a parcel.
2.2 a woman cuts out sketches of mannequin clothes she would buy if she had cash
2.3 however she is going to by no means be capable of afford these as she isn’t rich
2.four her harmless habit litters her desk
three. Accumulating as critical interest has many advantages
3.1 offers rest for leisure hrs.
three.2 taking a look at one’s treasure is all the time a joy
3.3 One does not need to go out for amusement as collection is housed at residence
3.4 no matter the collection-stamps, data, china-always something to do in connection with it
3.5 pastime educates us in the chosen subj. & gen. issues related to it
4. Other benefits of accumulating as hobby-
4.1 One gets to satisfy like-minded collectors
4.1.1 to get adv.
4.1.2 examine notes
4.1.3 change articles
four.1.four exhibit one’s latest find
4.2 Soon pastime results in travelling
4.2.1 a meeting in one other city
four.2.2 a trip abroad to look a rare specimen
four.2.three collectors not confined to at least one country
4.3 One more likely to grow to be authority on one’s interest over the yrs.
4.4 might in all probability be asked to provide informed talks to little gatherings & later larger audiences.
Record of abbreviations used:
v – because
adv. – recommendation
phys. – bodily
yrs. – years
& – and
hrs. – hours
assoc. – affiliation
subj. – subject
diff. – totally different
gen. – basic
(B) Abstract: Individuals generally tend to amass possessions, which might at occasions be described as muddle, as a result of the sentimental worth hooked up to sure things. Typically amassed belongings may litter up our desks. But accumulating as a critical pastime has many benefits. It offers rest for leisure hours and there’s all the time one thing to do in connection with it. It additionally provides one the alternative to satisfy like-minded collectors. This interest might lead to travelling and over the years when one turns into an authority on one’s pastime he might be asked to offer informal talks to little gatherings and later larger audiences.
Learn the passage given under rigorously: (Comptt. Delhi, Comptt. All India 2016)
1. Cholesterol is a waxy substance that’s present in our physique. It’s an essential element of our cell partitions and different tissues, however it is considered harmful if in extra. It will possibly lead to blockages brought on by plaque formation in the heart’s arteries inflicting heart illness and heart attacks. Such blockages also can happen in arteries, in the legs or in the mind. Ldl cholesterol is produced in the liver, and the quantity produced is influenced by our genes. The meals we eat, too, has effect on levels of cholesterol. Fatty foods, especially those excessive in saturated fat, and foods high in easy sugars comparable to cold drinks improve cholesterol levels. Lack of physical exercise and exercise also results in elevated levels.
2. We will scale back cholesterol levels by following a heart-healthy way of life, which includes regular physical exercise for a minimum of 30 minutes every day and a eating regimen high in vegatables and fruits and low in saturated sugar. Statins are a gaggle of medicine most beneficial for these with excessive ldl cholesterol. Purple yeast rice has been proven to be efficient in decreasing cholesterol. Embrace garlic and flaxseed in your every day weight loss plan. Olive oil, Canola oil or different oils rich in monounsaturated fatty acids can be used for cooking with a purpose to scale back cholesterol by way of food.
3. The ill-effects of high ldl cholesterol take time to point out, and chances are you’ll not realise it till it’s a bit too late. Cholesterol, by itself is essential because it insulates nerve cells and membranes. Being a fatty substance, it does not dissolve in the blood and is packaged into protein. There are ‘good’ HDL cholesterol and ‘bad’ LDL ldl cholesterol. Dangerous ldl cholesterol can keep on with the clean lining of the blood vessels, the place it’s absorbed, whereas HDL mops up excess dangerous cholesterol and removes it from blood vessels. Even average bodily activity may also help improve HDL ldl cholesterol.
four. Exercise five days every week, whether you’re obese or underweight. Cardio workouts like walking, biking, swimming, sluggish jogging, dancing and so forth. for 45 minutes, 3 times every week and anaerobic workouts like weight coaching, and sprinting, for an additional three days will help improve good and scale back dangerous ldl cholesterol. In an effort to maximize your cardiovascular health, aerobic workouts
ought to increase your heart fee to a sure degree. This degree is known as your target heart zone. Hold your heart fee elevated for a minimum of 20 minutes. All the time warm-up, stretch, and cool down-relax-before and after any exercise to avoid injuries. All these contribute to a more healthy and fitter life.
(A) On the basis of your studying of the above passage, make notes on it utilizing headings and subheadings. Use recognisable abbreviations (wherever necessary-minimum 4) and a format you contemplate appropriate. Additionally, provide a title to it. 5
(B) Write a abstract of the passage in about 80 words. three
(A) Title: Good Ldl cholesterol for a more healthy life Notes:
1.1 leads to blockages
1.2 causes coronary heart illnesses
1.3 coronary heart attacks
2.1 plaque formation in arteries
2.2 fatty foods
2.2.1 excessive in sat. fat
2.2.2 lack of phys. exercise
3.1 heart-healthy way of life
3.1.1 reg. phys. exercise
three.1.2. weight loss plan excessive in fruits and veg.
three.2.1 pink yeast rice
3.2.2 garlic & flaxseed
3.2.three olive oil, canola oil
four. Varieties of ldl cholesterol
4.1 HDL – good
four.2 LDL – dangerous
5. For healthier & fitter life
5.1 Train five days every week
5.2 Aerobic workouts 45 mins, 3 times every week
5.2.4 sluggish jogging
5.three Anaerobic workouts three days every week
5.three.1 wt. training
Listing of abbreviations used:
sat. – saturated
phys. – physical
reg. – common
veg. – vegetables
& – and
mins. – minutes
wt. – weight
(B) Summary: Ldl cholesterol, waxy substance current in our body, is a vital element of our cell partitions and other tissues. If current in extra, it can be very dangerous. Our cholesterol levels are affected by the meals we eat. We will scale back levels of cholesterol by leading a heart-healthy life, doing common bodily exercise and consuming a food regimen rich in fruit and veggies. There are ‘good’ HDL ldl cholesterol and ‘bad’ LDL ldl cholesterol. To ensure an increase in our HDL degree and to steer a more healthy and fitter life, we should do aerobic and anaerobic workouts at the very least five occasions every week.
Learn the passage given under and reply the questions that comply with: (Delhi, All India 2017)
Probably the most alarming of man’s assaults upon the surroundings is the contamination of air, earth, rivers and sea with lethal supplies. This air pollution is for the most part irrevocable; the chain of evil it initiates is for the most part irreversible. In this contamination of the setting, chemical compounds are the sinister partners of radiation in changing the very nature of the world; radiation launched via nuclear explosions into the air, comes to the earth in rain, lodges into the soil, enters the grass or com, or wheat grown there and reaches the bones of a human being, there to remain until his demise. Similarly, chemical compounds sprayed on crops lie long in soil, getting into dwelling organisms, passing from one to another in a sequence of poisoning and demise. Or they cross by underground streams till they emerge and combine into new varieties that kill vegetation, sicken cattle, and hurt those that drink from once pure wells.
It took lots of of tens of millions of years to supply the life that now inhabits the earth and reached a state of adjustment and stability with its environment. The surroundings contained parts that have been hostile as well as supporting. Even within the mild of the sun, there were short-wave radiations with power to injure. Given time, life has adjusted and a stability reached. For time is the essential ingredient, but in the modem world there isn’t a time.
The rapidity of change and the velocity with which new situations are created comply with the heedless pace of man moderately than the deliberate tempo of nature. Radiation is not the bombardment of cosmic rays; it’s now the unnatural creation of man’s tampering with the atom. The chemical compounds to which life is asked to make changes are not merely calcium and silica and copper and all the relaxation of the minerals washed out of the rocks and carried in the rivers to the sea; they are the artificial creations of man’s creative mind, brewed in his laboratories, and having no counterparts in nature.
(A) On the foundation of your understanding of the above passage, make notes on it utilizing headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary- minimal four) and a format you contemplate appropriate. Additionally supply a title to it. 5
(B) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 phrases. three
(A) Title: Chemical Pollution of Setting Notes:
1. Most alarming assault by man on environ.
1.1 contamination of air, earth, rivers & sea with deadly materials
1.2 this ballot, irrevocable
1.three chain of evil initiated- irreversible
2. Chem. are partners of radiation
2.1 change nature of world
2.2 radiation released via nuclear explosion into air
2.three involves earth in rain
2.4 lodges into soil
2.5 enters grass, com or wheat grown there
2.4 reaches human body
three. Chem. sprayed on crops
three.1 lie long in soil
3.2 enter dwelling orgms.
three.3 passes from one to another-in chain of poisoning & dying
3.four passes an underground stream to emerge
3.5 combines into new varieties
4. Took hundreds of thousands of yrs. to supply life that inhabits earth
four.1 has reached stage of adjustment
4.2 stability with the surrounding
4.3 environ, incorporates hostile & supportive parts
5. Rapidity of change & speed-created new situations
5.1 radiation not bombardment of cosmic rays
5.2 unnatural creation of man’s tampering with atom
5.3 chem. to which life has to make changes
5.4 not solely cal., silica & copper
5.5 artificial creations of man’s creative mind
5.6 brewed in lab.
Listing of abbreviations used:
environ – setting
& – and
Poll. – air pollution
chem. – chemical
orgs. – organisms
yrs. – years
cal. – calcium
lab. – laboratories
(B) Summary: The chemical pollution that the setting is being subjected to by man is irrevocable and the chain of evil it starts is irreversible. Chemical compounds are companions of radiation that attain our physique and stay there till we die. It has taken us hundreds of thousands of years to supply the life that inhabits the earth and the rapidity with which new conditions are being created reveals man’s headless tempo whereby he’s tampering with the atom. The chemical compounds with which man has to make adjustments are usually not just the creations of his creative mind however brewed in the laboratories, having no counterparts in nature.
Read the passage under: (Comptt. Delhi, Comptt. All India 2017)
The Great Wall of China was constructed to link present fortifications right into a united defense system and better hold invading Mongol tribes out of China. It is the largest man-made monument ever to have been built . and it’s stated that it’s the only one visible from area. Many hundreds of individuals should have given their lives to build this big development.
The Great Wall of China is a collection of towers made of stone, brick, earth, wooden and other materials, usually constructed along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires towards the raids and invasions of the numerous nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe. A number of partitions have been being built as early as the seventh century BCE; these, later joined collectively and made greater and stronger, at the moment are collectively referred to as the Nice Wall. Especially famous is the wall built (220-206 BCE) by Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. Little of that wall stays. Since then, the Nice Wall has on and off been rebuilt, maintained and enhanced; the majority of the present wall is from the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).
Other purposes of the Nice Wall have included border controls, allowing the imposition of duties on goods transported along the Silk Street, regulation or encouragement of trade and the management of immigration and emigration. Furthermore, the defensive characteristics of the Nice Wall have been enhanced by the development of watchtowers, troop barracks, garrison stations, signalling capabilities by means of the means of smoke or hearth and the incontrovertible fact that the path of the Great Wall also served as a transportation hall.
The Great Wall stretches from Dandong in the east to Lop Lake in the west, along an arc that roughly delineates the southern edge of Inside Mongolia. A complete archaeological survey, utilizing superior technologies, has concluded that the Ming walls measure eight,850 km. This is made up of 6,259 km sections of actual wall, 359 km of trenches and a couple of,232 km of pure defensive obstacles akin to hills and rivers. One other archaeological survey discovered that the complete wall with all of its branches measures out to be 21,196 km.
King Zheng of Qin conquered the last of his opponents and unified China as the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty (“Qin Shi Huang”) in 221 BCE. Aspiring to impose centralized rule and stop the resurgence of feudal lords, he ordered the destruction of some sections of the walls, nevertheless, he ordered a constructing of new partitions to connect the remaining fortifications alongside the empire’s northern frontier. Transporting a large number of supplies required for development was troublesome, so builders all the time tried to make use of native assets. Stones from the mountains have been used over mountain ranges, while earth was used for development in the plains. The Great Wall idea was revived beneath the Ming dynasty in the 14th century, to realize a clear higher hand over the Mongolian tribes.
(A) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, utilizing headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary-minimum four) and a format you think about suitable. Additionally provide the applicable title to it. 5
(B) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words. 2
(A) Title: The Great Wall of China Notes:
1.1 largest man-made monument
1.2 just one visible from area
1.three many gave their lives to construct it
1.4 collection of towers made of stone, brick, earth, wood and so on.
2. Function of constructing The Nice Wall of China:
2.1 to link present fort, into a united defence sys.
2.2 maintain invading Mongol tribes out of China
2.three have border management
2.4 permit the imposition of duties on goods transp. along Silk Street
2.5 regulation or encouragement of commerce
2.6 control of immigration &. emigration.
3. Geog. details:
three.1 built alongside an east-to-west line across Northern China border
three.2 protects Chinese language states and empire towards raids and invasions
three.three several partitions built-in seventh cent. BCE
3.four later joined & made greater & stronger
three.5 stretches from Dandong in east to Lop Lake in west
four. Hist, details:
four.1 constructed by Qin Shi Huang esp. well-known
four.2 little stays
four.three since then Nice Wall has been rebuilt, maintained & enhanced
four.4 Maj. of present wall is from Ming dynasty
5. Ming Wall-Archaeological survey concludes:
5.1 measures eight,850 km.
5.2 consists of natural defence limitations like hills & rivers
5.3 wall & branches measure 21,196 km
Record of abbreviations used:
fort. – fortifications
sys. – system
Geog. – Geographical
esp. – especially
seventh – Seventh
km – Kilometer
transp. – transported
cent. – century
Maj. – Majority
&. – and
Hist. – Historical
(B) Summary: The Nice Wall of China, the largest man-made monument and the just one seen from area, is a collection of towers built along an east-to-west line across northern China border to protect Chinese language states from invasions. Several walls which have been constructed earlier have been joined and made greater and stronger are collectively known as the Great Wall. The wall built by the first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang is particularly well-known, though little of that wall remains. Since then the Great wall has been rebuilt and enhanced. The majority of the present wall is from the Ming Dynasty.