"Stonewall" Jackson Battle of Chancellorsville Civil War - Regional community History Latest Seniors

Smoothbore Volley, condemning the Confederation, Chapter 1

Smoothbore Volley, condemning the Confederation, Chapter 1

Robert Krick

The first 18 pages of Smoothbore Volley's convicted to the Confederation: The demise of Jackson and other figures from the North Virginia Army, Robert Okay. Krick, will come again from this permission. author and writer, Louisiana State University Press, which retains all re-publishing rights. The library copies of the Smoothbore Volley Library can be found for check-out

Nineteen men in two totally different teams rode ahead from the unified Accomplice strains west of Chancellorsville at about 9:00 pm. Might 2, 1863. Only seventy-seven came back untouched, a man or a horse. Though a type of who have been closest to the offensive musket, Major Basic P. Hill escaped in a shameless handful. Lieutenant Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson was one among the five men who have been lifeless or mortally wounded. The slender paths of some dozen one-ounce lead balls that ate out of the dense bush of the Spotsylvanian wilderness tonight have been much in touch with the civil conflict.

From the conceivable viewpoint, Might 2 afternoon had been an ideal success for Confederate on an unprecedented scale. Lee and Jackson had shaped a stunning tactical initiative, which despatched Stonewall covertly over the complete federal military, which crossed the southern two. The Redoubtable Corps Commander dominated a big march without critical interruptions, cut up his first two divisions right into a broad line, and landed in federal states as a thunderstorm. Those northern who fought boldly towards the tides encountered the infinite reaches of the Jackson line, stretching far from the middle of the attack in each instructions. In this means, Jackson routed one in every of the Union troops, offended the line and left others shameful, uncertain and weak.

Taking a messenger close to Chancellorsville. 1863. Opening a new window for Alfred R. Waud's new window / Public Area

The southern soldiers who take pleasure in their steamer enemies found their legendary chief throughout the profitable advance. Darkness and confusion would result in devastating results, which in some southern states would ignite Jackson, however early in the evening everybody knew the place he was. The adjutant of the Georgian regiment in the front row of the assault reminded that when the preventing was lifeless, the country appeared to "tremble as the shake caused by the earthquake, cheering is so great that Mr. Jackson ran along the line." inadvertently ignited Jackson, noticed his hero "in the dark." Tar Heels woke him up and was pleased when Stonewall "took his hat off of their greetings." In the column next to the adjacent march, had not moved away When the darkness was closed with victorious, but exhausted confederates, the have to progress to the recent and better-organized troops in the forefront turned obvious, Lane's 5 regiments drew the handle. then proper and left, perpendicular to Orange Plank Street, getting ready for a new night time attack. North Carolinians hesitated on the street, uncertain about how you can type a line, because "each side of the shrub was so dense that it was impossible to march." South pistols on a small street near a rural faculty and a commerce on the west aspect of the Lane regiments opened a fireplace in the woods in the course of Chancellorsville. The horrible concept of ​​beginning this capturing is probably from a artillery supervisor who needed to make noise. The North Weapons responded far more and prompted destruction to the unfortunate North Carolina infantry who stood in the ranks of the street and organized themselves as a conveniently encapsulated object. The shot and the shell came "as pits as". Major W. Morris of 37 North Carolina vowed that he had never "experienced [e] such a peeling." Basic Lane cried to his men to lie down on the street; most would in all probability have collapsed before they could possibly be referred to as by their generals. Lieutenant 37. Recalled that the troops "buried our faces as close as possible to the ground and look forward to some of us massaging our skin from our nose trying to get under it." [3]

A. P. Hill and Stonewall Jackson ignored the highly effective hearth once they talked to one another on the horse's again, so "deeply absorbed" that the enemy's shells burst "[,]. . . plowing on the ground "beneath the ft of their horses," until both takes any much less attention. “Major William H. Palmer, Hill's brilliant and succesful human assets supervisor, managed to find Common Lane in a hedge trimmer, and two men shortly agreed to cease the hearth before the troops might transfer on. Palmer drove back to the faculty constructing and closed the Confederate artillery, and the enemy stopped firing soon after the finish of the provocation. Peeling took about fifteen minutes [4]

As quickly as the volcano got here to an finish, Lane moved 5 of his North Carolina regiments to order. 28. appeared to the east on the left, 18 on the proper. Right 18th century anchored to Orange Plank Street. 37. Proceed south of the street, seventh – and – brigade – right. Based on the tactical dog of the period, Lane provided a healthy display of the wild in entrance of the entire 33 in the type of North Carolina. All this infantry deployment passed off without firing the gun. The federal works of the country and the logs equated the front of the brigade, however Lane didn't put her husband on the hearth; their process was to assault, not to defend. 28th and 18th day pushed somewhat additional to the front in response to the Lane directions, and prepared prematurely what Jackson had ordered. Lane then went to courtroom to convey 37th and seventh place to the similar line. [5]

Three accomplice artillery pieces stood close to the street in the midst of the Lane & # 39; infantry mixture, every with a cannon gun. This cellular hand had acted as Jackson's help since the beginning of the assault. 4 Lynchburg Beauregard rifles arms beneath Captain Marcellus N. Moorman have been standing by the street two kilometers west when Jackson started an attack. Moorman was in the dark in front of one among the weapons commanded by Lieutenant Robert P. Burwell. The other two have been McGregor's Battery and Breathed's Battery (Lieutenant Philip P. Johnston). Main Robert F. Beckham was a horse-artillery officer current. Jackson's artillery supervisor, Colonel Stapleton Crutchfield, directed the horse-artillery items to organize to maneuver backwards in order that his extra conventional batteries might be taken over. [6]

Crucial job in the opened accomplice line was for men in North Carolina, far from the forefront. The regiment started with 480 robust, about 20 % above the average in the Confederate Regiment. The lads of the 21st century said that that they had a "danger post, but it was also a place of honor". After the battle, it turned commonplace for Lane to wrongly blame Jackson for the imminent hassle of not sending monsters. Captain RE Wilbourn, whose consideration alongside Jackson is the most essential source of the occasion, set a voice: “This unlucky thing was because we didn't have any wild or picky strains in front of us – carelessness that would not be given. “In reality, Wilbourn and Jackson have by no means achieved well-established, well-trained and well-guided strains. The third 33rd area staff unfold their control over the unit – Colonel on the street and his two subordinates on the far aspect, all "short stories of enemy monsters." As the seventh historian, on the right aspect of the foremost line, stated: "Everyone knew they were [there]." The 37th-century historian pointed out that the 33rd has unfold all through the "brigade front". The Lane line could not have been accomplished higher. [7] [19659002] A regulation where Lane built his line when Stonewall Jackson was impatiently reluctant to resist the afternoon's violence. The front edge of Neste's battle area was virtually rude. "The fire had stopped," Wilbourn wrote, "and everything was quiet – the enemy with darkness … disappeared completely from our view." In silence, the Yankee voices that screamed the instructions have been weakly reflected by way of the forest several hundred meters away, making a "sense of humor of human voices". The silent exception to silence was "a crappy cry of the yard," Common Lane recalled: "I played in my ears in every direction." [8]

Stonewall Jackson opens a brand new window where Bradley & Firm, Philadelphia / Public Domain opens a new window

Stonewall Jackson rode a troubled brigade that impressed every investor , he met the importance of benefiting from the victory. Close to faculty faculty, he met Common Rameses, who stated with enthusiasm: “My division behaved brilliantly tonight.” Jackson agreed and promised to say so in his official report. Press them, Common Hill press them and reduce them out of the United States Ford. “Jackson then met Common Lane, who requested Hill in the dark. Stonewall knowledgeable the brigade that he needed the night time attack to proceed: "Push right, Lane, in front!" In these encounters, Jackson used a "special wave" to emphasise his intentions. Wilbourn described this ardent gesture as "characterized by his willpower and power, Over the head of a horse, a gesture that’s keen sufficient for the acrobatic edge is clearly handed on to the subordinate observers at the typical intensity of the viewers. [9]

The normal reconstructions of Jackson's driving in front of his design strains illustrate his celebration with the AP. Hill, their employees members combined up. Each generals had ridden in front, surrounded by assistants and couriers. Nevertheless, the two males and the cavalcads involved have been somewhat extensive apart and without touching each other. Confusion in all probability arose from the indisputable fact that Captain James Keith Boswell, Stonewall's topographic engineer, rode next to Hill. This occurred at the final minute when Jackson intimately at Boswell helped Hill understand the land. The Corps Commander had asked Hill how nicely he knew the option to the US Ford (Bullock Street). Though he was a local of nearby Situated in Culpeper, Hill had been many years out of the army duties and admitted: "I'm completely unknown to the topography of this country." Jackson, "replied immediately:" Capt. Boswell, tell Basic Hill. “” Stonewall added to his head of division: “Permit something to cease you; continued to the United States Ford. “Jackson continued, leaving Boswell again with Hill. [10]

Hill's amassing round, vital behind Jackson and his group, was lastly ten men. Hill rode on Plank Street in the middle of a three-man cluster, Captain Boswell on the proper and Main William H. Palmer on the left. There were seven males behind the group behind him:

Captain Conway Robinson Howard, engineer

Lieutenant Murray Forbes Taylor, aide-de-camp

Captain Benjamin Watkins Leigh, aide-de-camp

James Fitzgerald Forbes, Momentary Volunteer

Sergeant George W. Tucker, Chief Justice of the Peace

Personal Richard J. Muse, Courier

Personal Eugene L. Saunders, Courier

Hill Celebration didn’t comply with Jackson's actual route nor [11]

Jackson The escort was virtually precisely the similar variety of males as Hill's. Basic Brother-in-Regulation Joseph G. Morrison described the get together as "eight in number". 18. The lieutenant of North Carolina confirmed his calculation when he estimated that the Jackson and Hill groups have been "maybe 20 riders". two lists have been issued for a total of nineteen. If Morrison, with the exception of Jackson, meant eight riders, the evaluation is strictly the similar as well-known individuals – all but one in every of the different celebration members who’ve acknowledged it, not simply in an autobiographical account:

Captain Richard Eggleston Wilbourn,

Captain William Fitzhugh Randolph 39. Virginia Cavalry Battalion Delivering Couriers

Lieutenant Joseph G. Morrison, Aide-Camp Camp

William E. Cunliffe 19659002] WT Wynn, Sign Corps

Personal David Joseph Kyle, 9. Virginia Cavalry

Personal Joshua O. Johns, 39. Virginia Cavalry

Personal Lloyd T. Smith, 39th Virgin and Cavalry

Wilbourn rode on the left of Jackson, Cunliffe and Wynn instantly behind. [12]

Jackson's most essential member for historic purposes was a person with the least standing at that time – a 19-year-old personal David Kyle of the ninth Virginia cavalry. In his admirable Lee Lieutenant Douglas Southall Freeman defines the particular benefit of Kyle's account as a veteran, Freeman discovered from a pal, hunted in the space, and purchased close by cattle throughout the 1890s. What Freeman did not know was that David Kyle actually acted in his personal yard. He had lived before the struggle in Bullock, which gave his identify to the adjacent street. However when dense landlords hugged the floor, Kyle might have seen his own again lane from Jackson's cavalcade route. David Kyle knew that night time in a smoke-free, flaming, chaotic wilderness where he was. No one else might have been sure. In addition, Kyle strengthened his understanding of the events by strolling on earth again on Might four, 1863. [13]

Personal Kyle found herself guiding the legendary Stonewall Jackson round her home-cum-battlefield in a wierd state of affairs. About 3:00 pm P.M. Brigadier Common William Henry Fitzhugh "Rooney" Lee, the son of R.E. Lee and the former Commander of the ninth Virginia Cavalry, despatched Kylie to deliver his ambassador to Major Common J.E. Lee warned the courier that the foremost roads may be contaminated by the Yankees, so Kyle traveled round the Parker retailer, after which gently wrap his method north. He left for Jackson's troops on Brock Street, and then hit Lacy again with Mill's Ely's Ford. Kyle found Stuart close to the gate to Ely's yard and delivered the cargo. The overall asked Kyle's peace, and the younger cavalry essentially defined the circling route. Stuart requested how nicely Kyle knew the earth. The Chancellor of Thomas Frazer, one other native son, occurred to be near and the pipe up: "He knows every hog path." Stuart despatched Kyle at 6:30 am P.M.

Kyle went southwest, then south-east, to succeed in the junction of Orange Plank Street and Orange Turnpike & # 39; s opposite the Wilderness Church. Confused officers informed him that he may find Jackson west of Plank Street. Half a mile from the courier-informed sources have been to reverse the steps. Kyle Had Rev. Melz towards the Chancellor, "the man I had known for a while and trusted." The Chancellor lived in the southeast corner of the junction and had just returned from directing Jackson himself, leaving the common "right – on the aspect of the previous Powells area … a spot I knew so properly, Kyle reminded;

Just as Kyle approached the subject, he saw a number of riders on the street and turned to the front, he rushed in and asked for the most where Jackson was. Jackson pulled up Little Sorrel, turned the horse's head to the right aspect of the street, and skim what Stuart had sent. round it, eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry h When Jackson stopped reading, he requested Kyle, "Do you know all this country?" When the younger responded positively, Jackson simply stated, "Keep with me," then rode once more to the east. "[14]

Jackson went forward as he spoke of starvation for info because it was clear to his conversation that the veteran of the Stonewall Brigade commented," Always a good hand to wander … – He had to see himself. "Hill adopted fifty or a number of meters again behind a army label surrounded by put in employees when Jackson's group went out. ]

Each of the regular employees members thought Jackson was virtually flawed that their masters have been on the lookout for a complicated confederation, that the rude line was over or flawed. acutely aware and skilled guide, j If the local boy wouldn’t be current, Jackson would definitely have been in a position to use the down the street completely. Each Morrison and Wilbourn took this view. The truth is, Kyle directed Jackson to the hall of the mountain street (obviously) extra appropriately and pointed him east in the darkish tunnel by way of the brush. [16]

Kyle was quietly driving a Jackson Cavalcade outdoors the faculty building, figuring out so properly and simply around the east. He observed the reserve fund in a blatant line, most of it on the front. After a break throughout which Jackson talked to different officials (apparently encounters with Lane and Hill), the group moved on to another infantry line. The lads of this skinny pressure responded to Kyle's questionnaire by figuring out himself as 55th Virginia and 22nd Virginia battalion, each brigadier Henry Heth's brigade. Jackson turned to the left of the most important street and stopped, with Bullock and Mountain Street intersections and Plank Street being seen on either aspect. Kyle advised the public that one street went to the Bullock home (his residence) and another "runner-collector parallel to the plank road and came out about half a kilometer below." In all probability suspicious of a wierd guide to credentials, Jackson curtly advised Kyle to steer the means. The boy did so about 2 hundred meters; at the moment, the basic was finally caught up and stored updated with him. [17]

There isn’t a doubt that Stonewall Jackson made his solution to the east on Mountain Street and that he was shot near this corridor and never the head (Orange Plank). Whether or not he was at the finish of the mountain street from the primary street, he went north to Bullock Street's southernmost part to make Mountain Street less positive. Kyle's own account might be interpreted in either path, but it’s extra logical to think about that Jackson took Mountain Street utterly. Main Palmer's version refers to Hazel Grove as a part of a junction used by Jackson, which signifies that Mountain Street, which is significantly westward, should have been his first route [18]

Union XI Corps Routes Before Jackson's Attack The Battle of Chancellorsville opens a brand new window Allen C Redwood (1887) / Public Domain in a New Window

The 19th century historian Augustus C. Hamlin, albeit burning in the northern view, targeted primarily on the eleven of the federal group devoted to paying more attention to Jackson's return than another early scholar. Hamlin pointed out convincingly that the Fairview cannon, which had lately wiped the principal street, made it an undesirable street for exploration. Barely extra north the street remained in the captured zone and in addition took Jackson nearer to the delicate enemy sector that was occupied with him. Hamlin fairly accepted Kyle's account as the greatest and in addition gave a sworn statement of two (unidentified) 18th North Carolina officers who "declared that Jackson had not handed them however turned away from the left and left the view of the forest. “Most of the road construction remained clearly visible (“ although it was in use for a long time ”) when Hamlin studied the scene in the 1890s. Mountain Street maintained a parallel monitor, which was “60-88 meters away” from Plank Street in the vicinity of Jackson's wounding. Nevertheless, its western leg had disappeared and, for this mistaken cause, Hamlin ended up (perhaps rightly) making Jackson journey to Bullock Street to get to Mountain Street. [19]

Jackson and his eight companions continued east on Mountain Street, close to North Carolina's 33-line. There isn’t any indication that the captors noticed Jackson or that his get together saw them, but plainly everyone was aware of the presence of the other. From a complicated perspective, the South listened rigorously to the sounds of the enemy's preparations. The dialers informed federal pioneers that they have been keen about obstacles to the confederation's progress. Instructions clearly introduced via the forest. When asked about eyewitnesses and checking accounts, Jackson's assistant James Energy Smith later determined that Jackson really handed the vein melancholy and started rising up the hill to Chancellorsville. such far-reaching progress is hardly credible. Kyle, who was then current and far more accurate than Smith, thought the enemy was two to 3 hundred meters away; he heard them greatest about the proximity of Fairview, who cleared the foremost street south. "It seemed that the officers were trying to form their husbands in line," Kyle recalled. On reflection, the courier estimated that the silent break prematurely with the apogee took "two to four minutes." Then Jackson ransacked Little Sorrel and began returning to his steps. [20]

At the similar time, the tactical state of affairs west of the common, and especially southwest of Plank Street, had moved dangerously. Instantly after Jackson left him, Common James H. Lane rushed to the right aspect of his brigade to organize it for the proxy. The chaos and uncertainty he encountered threw him down for this objective. The struggle of Federals was sometimes twisted between the northern line of North Carolina and the seventh North Carolina, which was the farthest on the right Lane's fundamental line. Most of the unpleasant northern elements have been in Pennsylvania. This Lieutenant Colonel Colonel Levi H. Smith attempted to fail by stirring a white handkerchief and asking troops in every course that they favor. Seventh North Carolina instantly corrected Smith, who allegedly naïve to the white flag immunity – as if front-line inquiries might be carried out with out danger. "Simpleton imagined General Lane would give him a return," one Tar Heel chortled. Lieutenant James W. Emack, seventh, with four supporters, robbed at the least 2 hundred Smith regiments imprisoned. Carolinians are brilliantly accumulating swords and muskets from armored tanks full of forests to the proper of Lane. Basic Lane was on his proper aspect of his brigade, so he didn't know anything about what happened to Jackson; [21]

The imprisonment of so many enemy soldiers who have been in sudden proximity prompted confusion because of the events that occurred. On this crucial state of affairs, a federal official rode in the direction of the proper fringe of the 33rd cemeteries behind which the Pennsylvanians capture had simply opened. The ally in all probability was Brigadier Basic Joseph F. Knipe, till just lately he was 46 years previous in Pennsylvania. Knipe had approached his previous regiment, rejected his intelligence from nearby rebels. . . in a language that is stronger than polite, after which broke ahead alone. "He didn't go far or stay long when he got there," a 46-year-old historian swept and observed that Knipe had misplaced his hat in his terrible looting to flee.

official shut, loudly referred to as "General Williams", referring to Aipheus S. Williams, the twelfth of the Federal Corps. Captain Joseph H. Saunders, a 33-year-old North Carolina firm A, was at the right-hand intersection with Lieutenant Colonel Robert V. Cowan at Plank Street to verify more orders. Thus, the nineteen-year-old sergeant Thomas A. Cowan was in opposition to the intuitive Yanke. Young Cowan challenged the federal state, who replied that he and his celebration have been "friends." "What side?" "Union." Cowan stepped back into the company and ordered the hearth to the sound. The lads who passed the arc of lots of of yards, clearly heard one shot that was shortly acquired by different A corporations and then by other cadres in the space. Musketeers turned sharper and rolled north with an increasingly heavy quantity on each the quick line and the astonished confederates of the foremost line (which in fact fired at their very own wild!). The Seventh Colonel described the sequence and the horrible single shot: "The enemy expressed impatience, and was shot shot to the right, which received the Seventh Fire Volley." triggered a fireplace tons of of meters southwest. The deadly volleyball river in the Wilderness brush had nothing to do with Jackson, because it was started distant in misfortune. Regardless of Jackson's vulnerability to standard wisdom, none of the confederations initially opened the hearth on to the Common Social gathering. Cowan and her husband have been shot with an actual menace in an inexpensive approach. The other Carolinians who got here into the darkness far north of Cowan fired at first. Then, when Jackson and Hill and their escorts clashed loudly in an embarrassed desk, the Confederate Line continued to return to a scary figure that seemed to strategy the enemy troops.

The memory of Captain Wilbourn for these passionate moments that had survived by way of complexity and concentration. easy details. He recalled that the common had ridden east and that the hearth had out of the blue discharged from the confederate line. Wilbourn remembered that Jackson was turning back to avoid the hearth that started simply off North Carolina. In line with the Wilbourn account, Stonewall appeared north from the unique capturing at about the similar time as he was going again to the east. Two other trendy witnesses who usually are not far from the scene, repeated this easy development of events. [24]

David Kyle was the solely individual in the inquiry who knew the place he was. When the Basic crammed the federal noise he listened to and started again, from which he had come, Kyle rode instantly behind him. In about seventy-five meters, 4 or five mated men filtered into the hole between Kyle and Jackson, and the younger "sorted my horse a bit" and stayed about ten meters behind. When the social gathering came across Van Wert's home, Stonewall turned to the left of Little Sorrel and commenced to go away Mountain Street by shifting west to south. ”Aivan kuten hänen hevosensa [’] edessä olevat jalkansa olivat poistaneet tien reunan, hänen takajalat olivat vielä pankin reunalla”, Kyle kirjoitti, laajasti kuullut yksittäiset laukaukset olivat kaukana etelään. ”Hetkessä se otettiin ylös ja lähempänä oli viisi tai kuusi laukausta. . . after which instantly a large volley, as if from a Regiment.” [25]


[1]Richard W. Freeman, “Stonewall Jackson’s Death,” (Atlanta) Sunny South, December 19, 1896; Van Valentine Richardson, “The Death of Stonewall Jackson,” Fayetteville (N C.) Observer, February 20, 1884.
Freeman was a sergeant in the 44th Georgia. Captain Richardson commanded Company C of the 18th North Carolina.

[2]W. G. Morris (main and later lieutenant colonel of the 37th North Carolina) to James H. Lane, January 3, 1895, folder 113, and James H. Lane to A. C. Hamlin, [1892]James H. Lane Papers, AU; OR 25(1):916 (all references are to collection 1).
Of Hill’s six brigades, solely these of Henry Heth and Dorsey Pender initially shaped into line. The street was a freeway of early 1850s vintage, the Orange Plank Street, on the similar right-of-way here as the century-old Orange Turnpike.

[3]W. G. Morris to James H. Lane, January 3, 1895, and James H. Lane to A. C. Hamlin, [1892]Lane Papers, AU; Octavius A. Wiggins speech on Chancellorsville 1895, box 75, folder 1, Army Assortment, NCDAH.

[4]James H. Lane, “The Death of Stonewall Jackson,” Fayetteville (N C.) Observer, January 23,1884; William Fitzhugh Randolph, With Stonewall Jackson at Chancellorsville (N.p., n.d.), 7-8; Mary Anna Jackson, Memoirs of Stonewall Jackson by His Widow, Mary Anna Jackson (Louisville, Ky. : Prentice, 1895), 545-46; James H. Lane to A. C. Hamlin, [1892]Lane Papers, AU.
Randolph was a captain in the 39th Virginia Cavalry Battalion and played a task in the deadly drama about to unfold. His turn-of-the-century pamphlet is filled with anomalies and even outright errors, however some of the colour warrants its use.

[5]Walter Clark, ed., Histories of the A number of Regiments and Battalions from North Carolina in the Nice Warfare, 1861-65, 5 vols. (Raleigh: E. M. Uzzell, 1901), 1:376, 2:659; OR 25(1):916, 920.

[6]William H. Palmer, “Another Account of It,” Accomplice Veteran 13 (Might 1905): 232-33; John J. Shoemaker, Shoemaker’s Battery, Stuart Horse Artillery, Pelham’s Battalion, Afterwards Commanded by Col. R. P. Chew, Military of Northern Virginia (Memphis, Tenn.: S. C. Toof, 1908), 34; Marcellus N, Moorman, “Narrative of Events and Observations Connected with the Wounding of General T. J. (Stonewall) Jackson,” in SHSP, 30:111-13.
Shoemaker referred to as the officer commanding the piece “Lt. Birl,” which after some deciphering in official data was recognized as “Burwell” rendered with a Virginian accent. Moorman’s intermittently helpful account is marred by his selfish view, which assumes that each one three pieces belonged to his battery and ignores the presence of his superior, Main Beckham. Moorman’s pretensions are completely debunked in a letter that also supplies much other constructive detail about the occasion, R. F. Beckham to R. P. Chew, October 28, 1908, copy in the writer’s possession.

[7]Clark, Walter, Histories of the Several Regiments and Battalions from North Carolina, 1:376, 2:559, 659; R. E. Wilbourn to R. L. Dabney, December 12, 1863, Charles William Dabney Papers, SHC; OR 25(1):922.
Lane wrote that his skirmishers have been deployed “at least 400 yds” to the entrance, James H. Lane to A. C. Hamlin, June 19, 1895, Augustus C. Hamlin Papers, Houghton Library, Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. (assortment cited hereafter as ACH Papers/Harvard).

[8]R. E. Wilbourn to R. L. Dabney, December 12, 1863, Dabney Papers, SHC; OR 25(1):1010; Lane, “Death of Stonewall Jackson”; Randolph, With Stonewall Jackson, 7; James H. Lane to A. C. Hamlin, [1892]Lane Papers, AU; James Power Smith, “Stonewall Jackson’s Last Battle,” in Battles and Leaders of the Civil Warfare, ed. Robert Underwood Johnson and Clarence Clough Buel, four vols. (New York: Century, 1887-88), three:209; “Who Fired the Bullet That Killed Gen. Stonewall Jackson?,” Rockbridge County Information, January 12, 1951 (quoting 1901 Memphis paper); Richardson’s Virginia & North Carolina Almanac (Richmond: J. W. Randolph, [1862]).

[9]David J. Kyle, “Jackson’s Guide When Shot,” Confederate Veteran 4 (September 1896): 308-9; R. E. Wilbourn to R. L. Dabney, December 12, 1863, Dabney Papers, SHC; Palmer, “Another Account,” 232; Murray Forbes Taylor, “Stonewall Jackson’s Death,” Accomplice Veteran 12 (October 1904): 493; William H. Palmer to A. C. Hamlin, April 19, 1895, ACH Papers/Harvard; Jackson, Memoirs, 547; Lane, “Death of Stonewall Jackson”; James H. Lane to A. C. Hamlin, [1892]Lane Papers, AU; “Stonewall Jackson!,” Richmond Dispatch, October 26, 1875.
The latter source consists of accounts by a number of officers, together with one in every of many by Dr. H. H. McGuire. An important is a detailed narrative by an anonymous staffer beneath A. P. Hill. The M. F. Taylor account also appeared in substantially the similar type in the Fredericksburg Journal, October 22, 1904. The unique typescript of Taylor’s account, in the writer’s possession, consists of some material excluded from the revealed variations.

[10]Palmer, “Another Account,” 232; Taylor, “Stonewall Jackson’s Death,” 493; anonymous Hill employees member, in “Stonewall Jackson!,” Richmond Dispatch, October 26, 1875.
In R. E. Wilboum to Jubal A. Early, March three, 1873, vol. 6, Jubal A. Early Papers, LC, Wilbourn also specified a niche of “fifty or sixty yds.” between Hill and Jackson.

[11]R. E. Wilbourn to R. L. Dabney, December 12, 1863, Dabney Papers, SHC; Palmer, “Another Account,” 232; James H. Lane to A. C. Hamlin, [1892]Lane Papers, AU; Robert Okay. Krick, ninth Virginia Cavalry (Lynchburg: H. E. Howard, 1988), 72; Richard O’Sullivan, 55th Virginia Infantry (Lynchburg: H. E. Howard, 1989), 142, 149; Jackson, Memoirs, 427.
A sketch drawn by William H. Palmer (in ACH Papers/Harvard), uncovered since the first publication of this essay, conforms to the itemizing of Hill’s get together exactly but adds a courier named Kirkpatrick, who was killed.

[12]J. G. Morrison to Jubal A. Early, February 20, 1879, vol. 10, Early Papers, LC; Alfred H. H. Tolar, “Stonewall Jackson,” Wilmington (NC.) Every day Evaluate, December 15, 1883; R. E. Wilbourn to R. L. Dabney, December 12, 1863, Dabney Papers, SHC; Randolph, With Stonewall Jackson, 8; R. E. Wilboum to Jubal A. Early, February 12, 1873, in Jubal A. Early, Lieutenant Basic Jubal Anderson Early, C. S.A.:  Autobiographical Sketch and Narrative of the Struggle Between the States (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1912), 214.
The only individual claiming to have been in the cavalcade not recognized by another person was Lloyd T. Smith, a seventeen-year-old member of the 39th Virginia Cavalry Battalion. Smith’s claim is in Philip A. Bruce, ed., Historical past of Virginia, 6 vols. (Chicago: American Historic Society, 1924), 5:286. Smith’s story seems to be legitimate. He made no extravagant claims of positioning at middle stage, and his unit unquestionably provided the couriers. An essential nameless account in Land We Love 1 (July 1866): 179-82 has previously been attributed to Joe Morrison because inner proof suggests his authorship and the journal was edited by his brother-in-law D. H. Hill. Morrison in his letter to Early, February 20, 1879, Vol 10, Early Papers, LC, nevertheless, states: “I have never written anything connected with [Jackson’s wounding] for the press or contributed my testimony to the establishment of truth.” This declaration by Morrison, thirteen years after the Land We Love article appeared, seems to abolish earlier assumptions. Morrison remains a potential writer of the 1866 article, nevertheless, if his 1879 pronouncement is seen as having a central caveat about “for the press.” The article wrongly identifies Boswell as with the group however mentions Wilbourn, Morrison, and “five or six couriers,” additional validating the eight-man register of individuals listed in the textual content.

[13]Krick, 9th Virginia Cavalry, 84, 123; Douglas Southall Freeman, Lee’s Lieutenants: A Research in Command, 3 vols. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1942—44), 2:563n; U.S. Eighth Census, 1860, Schedule 1, “Free Inhabitants, Spotsylvania County, Virginia,” p. 72, M653, NA.
The 1860 census confirmed Kyle as a native of Maryland, age sixteen (December 17, 1843 – February 1, 1900). His sister, Catharine Kyle Bullock, age eighteen, and Oscar Bullock, age thirty-five, had two youngsters. David had been dwelling together with his sister and family since 1857. For 2 years earlier than that he resided with the Dowdall family on what would develop into the Chancellorsville battlefield. Family info from William Arthur Robertson, Jr., to R. Okay. Krick, November 1, 1997. Kyle’s account of his evaluation of the terrain two days later is from an necessary letter that he wrote to the historian Augustus C. Hamlin, November 8, 1894, ACH Papers/Harvard.

[14]The preceding account is predicated solely on Kyle’s own recollection of the afternoon and night. Kyle’s invaluable narrative in Accomplice Veteran (“Jackson’s Guide”) consists of some of these particulars however not as many as the ten-page penciled unique, which runs absolutely one-third longer than the edited (and somewhat revised) revealed version. A typescript is at the FSNMP library. The revealed model will probably be cited every time potential as a result of it’s more available to students, and the account at FSNMP will probably be cited only when it presents elaboration or (much less typically) variant language or particulars. In no less than two places, the editorial pen at Accomplice Veteran obscured as it attempted to clean.

[15]James C. Bosserman, “Bullets Didn’t Kill ‘Stonewall’ Jackson,” Richmond Occasions-Dispatch, October 12, 1930; nameless Hill employees member, in “Stonewall Jackson!,” Richmond Dispatch October 26, 1875; Taylor, “Stonewall Jackson’s Death,” 493; R. E. Wilbourn to Jubal A. Early, March 3, 1873, vol. 6, Early Papers, LC.

[16]R. E. Wilbourn to R. L. Dabney, December 12, 1863, Dabney Papers, SHC; Land We Love 1 (July 1866): 181; J. G. Morrison to R. L. Dabney, October 29, 1863, Dabney Papers, SHC.

[17]Kyle, “Jackson’s Guide,” 308; Kyle manuscript account, FSNMP.

[18]Palmer, “Another Account,” 232.

[19]A. C. Hamlin, in Jackson, Memoirs, 549-51; Augustus Choate Hamlin, The Battle of Chancellorsville: The Assault of Stonewall Jackson and His Army upon the Proper Flank of the Army of the Potomac at Chancellorsville, Virginia, on Saturday Afternoon, Might 2, 1863 (Bangor, Maine: Writer, 1896), 108.

[20]Jedediah Hotchkiss, Virginia, vol. 3 of Confederate Army History, ed. Clement A. Evans, 12 vols. (Atlanta: Accomplice Publishing Firm, 1899), 386; Smith, “Stonewall Jackson’s Last Battle,” 211; Kyle, “Jackson’s Guide,” 308; Kyle manuscript account, FSNMP; A. C. Hamlin, in Jackson, Memoirs, 551-52.

[21]Moorman, “Narrative of Events,” 113; James H. Lane to A. C. Hamlin, [1892]Lane Papers, AU; James H. Lane, “How Stonewall Jackson Met His Death,” in SHSP, Eight:494 (additionally revealed in Our Dwelling and Our Lifeless 3 [July 1875]: 33—36); Clark, ed., Histories of the Several Regiments and Battalions from North Carolina, 1:377, 2:559; James S. Harris, Historical Sketches of the Seventh Regiment North Carolina Troops (Mooresville, N.C.: Mooresville Printing Firm,[1893]), 28-29; OR 25(l):184, 916; James H. Lane to A. C. Hamlin, November 17, 1892, ACH Papers/Harvard.

[22]Alexander W. Selfridge, “Who Shot Stonewall Jackson?” in Camp-Hearth Sketches and Battle Area Echoes, comp. W. C. King and W. P. Berry (Springfield, Mass.: W. C. King, 1889), 377-79.

[23]Joseph H. Saunders, “Stonewall Jackson-His Wounds, &cc.,” Fayetteville (N C.) Observer, February 6, 1884; A. C. Hamlin, in Jackson, Memoirs, 548; James H. Lane to A. C. Hamlin, [1892]Lane Papers, AU; J. S. Harris to A. C. Hamlin, December Eight, 1894, ACH Papers/Harvard.
J. G. Morrison to Jubal A. Early, February 20, 1879, vol. 10, Early Papers, LC, never heretofore revealed or used, confirms the evidence that the opening rounds got here from the skirmish line, not the essential line: “My recollection is that it was in advance of where our line was supposed to [have] been.”

[24]R. E. Wilboum to R. L. Dabney, December 12, 1863, Dabney Papers, SHC; R. E. Wilbourn to Jubal A. Early, February 12, 1873, in Early, Autobiographical Sketch and Narrative, 214; Jedediah Hotchkiss to his wife, Might 19, 1863, Hotchkiss Papers, LC (microfilm roll 4, frames 515—16); Land We Love 1 (July 1866): 181.
Neither Wilbourn nor whoever wrote the Land We Love article ever did work out that the 33rd North Carolina was picketing to their front. Hotchkiss implies the similar misconception.

[25]Kyle manuscript account, FSNMP; Kyle, “Jackson’s Guide,” 308.

Abbreviations: AU = Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; FSNMP = Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania Nationwide Army Park, Fredericksburg, Virginia; LC = Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.; NCDAH = North Carolina Division of Archives and History, Raleigh; OR = U.S. Conflict Division, The Warfare of the Insurrection: The Official Data of the Union and Confederate Armies, 127 vols., index, and atlas (Washington, D.C.: Authorities Printing Workplace, 1880-1901); SHSP = Southern Historic Society Papers, 52 vols. (Richmond, 1876-1959)